Caansiardan le Thiltahdan Ziangtin A Rak Suak

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By vcth on July 30, 2013.

Salai Van Cung Lian (UK)

Thuhmai Hruai

Caan (Time, hour, minutes, seconds) le Distance kan tahdan (metre le feet) pawl hi tuni ah amah ten a rak um cia vekin kan ruat cio ding ka zum. Ziangtin a rak cang thok, zo nih metre hi hi can siseh a ti tivek hi kan ruat dah lem ding ka zum lo. Tuni ah England ih Greenwich Time hmangin leilungtlun zaten caan kan siar dan kan lung kim. Nikhat hi 24hr in kan then, 1hr hi 60 minutes, cun minutes kha 60 seconds ah kan then bet. Hitin leitlun zate lungkim ih caan pakhat kan hman thei tikah hnatuan, khualtlawnnak ah a remcang zet. Cuvek thotho in thil tahdan leitlun huap ih lungkim in kan hmang tikah thilsak, pursum leilawnnak ah le hnatuannak a rem cang zet. Asinan himi thil pawl hi amah ten a rak cang mi a si lo. Milai ih tuah mi a rak si. Himi caan le thilri kan tah dan a rak suaknak ding hrangah science tampi a tel. Civilization a rak thok pekte ihsin mah te caantahdan, thiltahdan an rak nei cio. Kan lai ram pipu san lai khal ah Sen, Khing le Sum tin thiltah dan pawl kan rak nei ih a hrekkhat cu tuni tiang kan hmang lai. Hivek Greenwich time, Meter, Kg tin leitlunpi lungkim mi Standard Units (SI) nei thei dingah milai in kum reipi research tuah in an rak zuam.

Khua hlan ahcun caansiardan le thiltahdan hi pakhat le pakhat kan bang awk lo hlei ah, a rak cekci (precise) lo. Vok sumkhat kan ti tikah, Sum cu minung par ih zir in a danglam. Sumkhat hi ziangtluk a sau tihi a cekci in sim theih a si lo. Hivek thotho in, nitlaknak lam ram pawl khal mah le ram ciar ah thiltahdan le caansiardan danglam zetin an rak nei cio. Engineering ka kai thok ihsin time, distance le weight pawl hi thuk deuh in pehtlaihawknak ka rak nei. Zo in meter hi meter siseh, zo in nikhat ah 24hr, 60minutes, 60 seconds siseh, zo in kilogram hi kilogram siseh, cule ziangruangah timi hi keimah ten ka rak ruat theu. Kandung zarh BBC documentary ah “Precision- Time and Distance Measurement” timi an rak suah. Cumi sungah caan le thil tahdan pawl ziangtin a rak cang timi an rak sim fiang ih tha ka ti zet. Himi cahram ah caan, meter pawl ziangtin siseh, ziangruang ah siseh tiih an rak relcat dan ka rak ngan ding.

Meter a rak thok dan

Egypt san lai ah “Rod” timi tahfung (pedan) an rak hmang, hi “Rod” hi Faroh Siangpahrang ih kiu ihsin kutzung can khi a rak si. Pyramids khal himi “Rod tahfung” hmang in an rak sak ih maktara ah a rak suak. England ram khal ah “1yard” cu Henry VII ih a hnar ihsin a kut zungpi can, Queen Elizabeth I ih kutdong can tin thuneitu par ih zir in an rak relcet/ hmang. Cutin leitlunpi lungkim mi thiltahdan hi an rak nei thei lo. 1872 ah Boston khua meisa a rak kang, Newyork le a kiangkap ih Fire Department pawl Boston ah mei hmit dingin an feh nan an pipe hman mi a bang aw lo, tidai laknak cet lu khal a bang aw lo tikah meisa hmit thei lo in Boston cu a rak kang thluh. Ramkhat ih thiltuahmi ramdang pakhat ah sak a ngah lo ruangah pehtlaihawknak a rak harsa zet.

French Revolution (1787-99) in leilungpi ukawkdan lawng silo in Science lam khal ah thlengawnak tampi a rak suak ter. Himi laifang French pawl ih ruah dan cu Siangpahrang thuneihnak cemter in mipi ih thuneihnak thawn thil an rak tuah thok tum. 1791 ah France Academy of Sciences in himi thiltahdan hi kumkhua a thleng lo mi thil par ah kan hngat (base) asile mi tampi in an cohlang ding ih leitlun zaten standard thiltahdan kan nei thei ding tiah an rak ruat. An rak hril mi cu leilungpi hi a si. Cuhlan ih sin Greek mifim pawl ih leilungpi cu a sawl/ hlum, cun Longitude le Latitue pawl hmangin leilung map khal cekci lo zetin an rak suai thok. French pawl ih ruahnak cu meter (Greek cafang “metron” i.e. measure) khat leilung pi a hrek (north pole ihsin equater) ih then 10 million ih thenkhat (1/10,000,000) siseh tin thu an rak rel cat. Asinan North pole ihsin Equater hi cekci in zaingtluk a hlat ti an rak thei lo. Himi tahnak dingah Scientists pa 2 in tuanvo an rak lak. An rak tah tum dan cu:

1. Meridian line par ih a um mi points pa 2 hril in, cumi points pa 2 in cekci Latitude le Longitude an thei asile, cumi points pa 2 in Arch ih a degree kha an hawl thei ding
2. Cun cumi point pa 2 ih a sau lam kha trigonometry le “triangulation method” hmangin cekci zetin tah ding.

Meter Thok daan

An hril points pa 2 cu French ram Dunkirk le Spain ram ih Barcelona a rak si. Cun 1791 ah himi points pa 2 ih latitude cu an rak thei ih, a arch kil (angle) cu 9 degree a rak si. Dunkirk ihsin Barcelona tiang a sau lam tahnak ding ah kum 7 an rak rei. Tahfung (Pidan) thawn a thokin a cem tiang cu an rak tah lo. An rak tah dan method cu “repeating circle” equipment an rak hmang. Dunkirk ih tipi thuanthum thawn naibik inn sangbik pa khat ihsin Jean-Baptiste Delambre in a thok, Barcelona ihsin Pierre Méchain in a thok ih France ram laifang ah tong awk ding an si. Tower pa khat tlun point (1) ihsin an tah thok, cun tower tlun ihsin a sangbik in a hmuh theinak e.g tlangzim (point 2) le (point 3) an hril. Point (1) ihsin (2) le (3) karlak ih kil (angel) an tah, cun a nai bik ih points kha a sau lam an rak tah. Phun 5 hrawng ihsi kan zir mi a simple zetmi Trigonometry method hmang in a sau lam hmuahhmuah an rak tah suak thei. Himi simple method hmangin kum 7 sung Dunkirk ihsin Barcelona tiang an rak tah. Cutin leilung pi ih a kauh lam an rak tah suak thei ih, meter bar pakhat an rak suak thei. Hitin tuni ih kan kawh mi le kan hman mi “meter” timi kan rak neih thok dan a si. Asinan himi meter an tahnak ah sualnak fate a um ruangah cutluk in a rak cekci (precise) lo, nan meter 1 timi in rak pek thei. Leitlun ral thiambik pakhat a si mi Emperor Napoleon in himi an hmuhsuak mi parah “Ram ka uk mi pawl cu tu ka ngah, tu ah ka sung thei, himi thil nan tuah suak mi cu a kumkhua in a hmun ding” tiah uang zetin a rak sim.

Caan

Milai kan nunnak a thok pekte ihsin “Ni” hmangin caan an rak siar/ liam ter. Kan pi le pu pawl khal sun cu ni a sangbik can, thinghnah til dan, nikhua thleng dan pawl par ih zir in ei le in an rak hawl i.e. sapel can, lo thlo can, ziangvek thilri cing can etc… Nikhat hi ziangtluk a sau, zankhat hi ziangtluk a sau ti an rak theithei lo. Greek mifim Ptolomen nih lawng nikhat hi ziangtluk a sau timi a rak thei ngah. Cun, Circle pakhat hi ṭhen 360, 90, 60 tin a rak then. Greek san ihsin nikhat ziangtluk a sau ti an thei zo nan, practically ngaingai in an rak hmang thei lo. Kum zabi 15th kan thlen hnu lawng ah Europe ram church tum pipi ah nazi tum pipi an rak sak thok. Cui nazi pawl cun nazi pakhat a kim le dar a tum. Kum zabi 16th a rak thlen lawngah nazi kutzung (lettan) pawl an rak bun thok. Cutin caan le thiltahdan timi pehtlaih awknak an rak nei thok. Caan cu nazi kutzung hawi can a feh timi parih tah a rak si. Cun, nazi cu Ptolomy ih circle rak then vekin 60m, 60s tin kan then vivo ih can cu cekci deuh in an rak siar thei. Asinan, standard caan timi a rak um lo, khua pakhat in ni a sangbik caan zohin an khua ih nazi kha 12pm ah a thleng ring ring ṭul. Cutikah hmun khat le khat ni kan ngah dan a bang aw lo vekin, khuakhat le khuakhat an can siardan khal a rak dang awk.

2.1 Sundail

Leilungpi a ṭhangso deuhdeuh thlang tikah can dik famkim (tihciah) zet neih ding hi a rak ṭul. E.g. England ramih tlangleng an rak neih thok tikah, tlangleng khua pakhat ih a thlen ding can hi cekci zetin an rak theithei lo. Cutin Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich time timi an rak tuah ih, England cu leitlunpi ih a laifang ah a rak cang. Tuisun ih kan nazi siardan cu England Greenwich parah kan ṭhum aw (base) thluh. Kum zabi 20th a rung thok in motor, tlangleng manufacturing a thok thlang tikah milai in caan thawn hnaṭuan a ṭul thlang. Cuhrangah tikcucan cekci zet neih a ṭul tengteng. Nazi hman te lei ding a rak harsa zet lai. Nazi an lei thei nan, ziang tikcaan hi nazi 12 si timi ret ding ah an rak buai thei zet. Greenwich time an thok pekte ahcun cui nazi kha a hmanbik mi caan a si ruangah, nazi zuar pawl cun nitin an nazi zuar ding mi kha Greenwich ah va feh ih Greenwich clock thawn an rem (tait) ih cutin an zuar theu. Radio le nazi man ol tete a suah hnu ahcun thil a olsam vivo ih Caan cu Paisa a rak si thlang (Time is Money). Milai in Caan thawn pumcawmnak an rak hmang thok. Cutin leitlun Globlaization a rak thok vivo.

Caan le Thiltahdan Cekci Sin Sin (Precision)

16th century thok lam ihsin caan le thiltahdan pehtlaih awknak an rak nei, cun caan le thiltahdan in pumcawmawknak mitampi in an rak hawl thok thlang. Himi in milai kan nunnak nasa zetin a thleng. Mass productions, e.g. motor company pawl hrangah cekci tahnak (precise measurement) hi a thupi tuk. Thil part fatete cekci (precise) zetin an suah tei le motor khal caan malte sung ah part pawl bun khawm in an suah thei tikah pursum leilawnnakah hlawhtlinnak an rak hmu. Curuangah French scientist pawl ih hmuhmi meter hnak in cekci (precise) deuh sawn mi distance hawl a rak tul vivo. Tiduhnak cu tusun leilungpi size cekci zetin kan thei ih, himi French pawl ih hawlsuakmi meter fung in kan tah mile, modern san satellite ih kan tah mi a kaih aw lo. Himi thil pahtlangnak ding ah Albert Michalson in 1940 ah Infernometer cet a rak sersuak. Cui cet cun light wave (tleunak ih cang vaih dan) pawl a tah thei. Kan theih mi tleunak (light) hi tisuar (wave) vekin an vak vai. Cumi wavelength kan thei ih, wavelength paziat ah meter khat siseh tin a rak tumtah. Leilung pi ih a pianhmang taktak cu theih a har zet, cun a her dan khal a hmun ring ring lo tikah leilung pi hnak ih hmun ringring mi tleunak parah base dingin an rak tum tah lala. Light ih a khualtlawng dan universal ah kumkhua in a hmun ringring timi thu khal “Einstein Special Relativity Theory and Way of Life” timi cahram ka rak ngah dan zo. Cutin meter cu cekci zetin an tuah thei vivo. Tusunah, leilungpi parih ṭhum aw mi hnakih cekci sawn “light wave” parah base in thiltahdan kan hmang.

Cuvek thotho in second pakhat cu leilungpi her dan ah thum aw (base) in an rak hminsin. Asinan, leilungpi her dan cu a bangawk ringring (punghman) lo ruangah a rak cekci lo. E.g. Thlapi le Leilung hlat lam (distance) tuni ah cekci zetin kan thei, 1940s hrawng ih kan theih mi caan (minutes) vekih tuat in va kai sehla peng 4000 lai a sam lai ding ti a si. Milai thlapi par khal ah kai an rak tum thok thlang ruangah caan khal cekci zet mi neih a tul vivo. Ziangtin an rak tuah tile England ah “Atomic Clock” an tuah. Tuni ah seconds pakhat cu “Cesium Atom” pakhat ih a khir can ih zir in second pakhat cu an hmin sin. Light vek thotho in Atom pawl khal cu kumkhua in a hmun ringring mi thil pawl an si. Tuni ih caan kan siar dan le kan hminsin dan cu England ih um Atomic Clock parih thumaw (base) mi a si.

Thunetnak

Cutin thil kan tahdan, caan le distance pawl cu minung, siangpahrang, ni le leilungpi a hre dan ah thum aw ter/hngat(muṭi) nawn lo in kumkhua in a hmun mi “speed of light” le “atom ossilation” parah hngat (muti) in nitin caan kan hmang, hna kan ṭuan. Cutin cekci zetin kan tah thei in leitlunpi in kan lungkim tikah khualtlawng dan, hnatuan can, banking, internet pawl hmang in leitlunpi hnatuan tlang theih in Globalization a cang tertu bik an rak si. Khuahlan ah hivek thil a um ban thei mi a si lo, amah te a rak cang mi khal siloin, milai ih zuamnak in a rak cang vivo mi thil pawl a rak si.

Na ruahnak