Cetlam Ṭhansonak le Huham Picang Ram Pawl Suahkehnak

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By vcth on July 19, 2013.

Cetlam Ṭhansonak le Leitlun Huham Cak Zet Ram pawl Suahkehnak [The Industrial Revolution and The World Superpowers]

Thuhmaihruai

England ram saklam ih Stockton timi khua fate pakhat ah ka umnak hi kum 3 a luan thlang. Hih khua hi tuni England khua dang pawl thawn tahṭhim ahcun a farah zet. Asinan, tuhlan kum zabi 18-19 sungah Mirang (Britain) ih rak thokmi cetzung/cet ih cangvaihnak in a hung suakmiṭhansonak (The Industrial Revolution) ih hmainortu khua a rak si. Ram tinkim ih hmanmi tlangleng (Railways) a rak suaknak khua a si. Tuihhlan minung le rannung thazaang hmang ih hnaṭuannak kha cet tha hmang ih hnaṭuannak in a rak thlengh awkmi caan hi Cetlam Thleng-awknak (Industrial Revolution) ti’n an ko. Tuihhlan leiram neitu bawiphun (aristocratic land owners) kut tangih lothlo hnaṭuan daan, feudal sanlai ah ram neitu in a ram hnaṭuantu dingah, sal vekih a fialmi minung pawl ih lothlawh daan (serf), le sal (slave) daan pawl cu cemter tahrat in cet (machines), khua (cities) le cetzung neitu (industrialist) in a rak thleng/airawl.

Himi cahram (article) ah hin Britain Industrial Revolution ih a hmual le ziangti’n leilung thar (modern world) a cangter timi thu ka ngan ding. Ziangti’n a thok ih a feh vingvo (progress) timi lawng si loin himi thleng-awknak a duh lotu pawl ih thuanthu hrekkhat khal ka ngan ding. Cun himi thleng-awknak hi leitlun ramdang ah a karhzai vingvo ih ram tampi in an rak duh lo. China, America, Russia le Japan ram pawl ah himi thleng-awknak duhtu/tumtu pawl le duh lotu pawl raal an rak do awk thu. Cun, Nitlaknak ram ah ramkhat le ramkhat zuam-awknak ihsin leitlun hmun tinkim an rak uk daan (Western Colonization), Thleng-awknak (Revolution) tinkim in thiisen a luangter, himi cetlam thleng-awknak khal a luat cuang lo, thiisen tampi a luangter thotho. Himi thleng-awknak ruangah leitlun huham neibik le lianbik (super-powers) ram pawl a suakter thu pawl ka ngan ding.

  1. 1.      Mirang ram ih Cetlam Tthansonak (Industrial Revolution in Britain)

Hlanlai Bratain ram ih Lothlawh le sumhnam rak zuat daan cu a tufang kan Laitlang ih kan hman rero lai vekin basic tools i.e. tuhmui tivek le minung thazaang hmang in an pum an rak cawm awk ve. Cetzung tampi ram sungih an din hnu ahcun, Lothlotu pawl khal minung tha hmang loin cet tha an hmang, an khua ah Lothlo nawn loin khuapi cetzung ah kai in hna an va ṭuan. Thir suahnak cetzung (Iron Industry), cet ih tahmi puanthan suahnak cetzung (textile industry) pawl an din suak. Ahleice in Steam Engine an sersiamnak ruangah ram hlapi khualtlawnnak (transporation), hmunkhat le hmunkhat pehtlaih-awknak (communication) le Bank hnaṭuan (banking) pawl a suakter. Tuhlan 1807 hrawngah khur laih (mining) in rangva (tin), daar (copper), thir (iron) le lung meihol (coal) pawl an rak hawl.

Mirang ram ih Cetlam Tthansonak (Industrial Revolution in Britain)

 

Ka umnak Stockton kiangkap khal ah mining in pum an rak cawm awk. An hawl suakmi coal pawl hmundang ih thiar le kuat thei daan dingah an rak buai zet. Leitlun ih Engineer hminthang pakhat a simi George St

evenson cun culai ah Stockton khua le a kiang ih Darlington khua ah tlangleng zin a rak sak. Cun steam engine (lung meihol pawl meiling sungah ah ur in power a pek theimi cet engine) a sersiam ih leitlun ih hmaisabik tlangleng a rak tuah suak. A thoknak ahcun khur laih in an hmuhmi thir le meihol pawl an phur, cun minung pawl an phur. Himi hlanah zohman cakzet in le minung tampi hmunkhat ah a phur theimi thliri a rak um hrih lo. Tlangleng zin cu England hmunkip ah an sak ih 1860 kum ah, England ram ih khuapi hmuahhmuah cu tlangleng thawn feh thei a rak si. Cuti’n khuakhat le khuakhat pehtlaih awknak nei in sumdawnnak an rak nei thei. An cetzung pawl le Steam Engine pawl hlei ah sersiammi thil thar tampi (new inventions) an rak suahpi. Thuṭhimnak ah, Lawng (Steam ships), Lilawn (steel bridges), lekṭhik (electric) ṭhuam tivek pawl khurlai in an hawlmi thliri, cetzung in an suahmi thilri pawl thawn an rak sak ih an ram ih siipuazi (economy) a rak ṭha zet.

Ziangruangah Britain ram in himi cet lam ṭhansonak a thok? Ziangruangah Mirang in leitlun ram tampi an rak uk dah? tiin mitampi an sut tikah an fim cuang ruangah a si, ti’n an sim ṭheu. Midang hnakin an fim cuang ruangah a si lo. Catbang loin khurlai in thil mankhung an rak hawlnak, an hawlmi thilri pawl in thil phunphun suah in ram sung lawng siloin ramleng ah zuar daan an hawl ih paisa an rak hawlnak hi power an rak neihnak thutlangpi bik a rak si. An thil hmuh suakmi le sersiammi, an idea pawl ramleng ah an karhter ih sumdawng thiam in, an lennak le an sinak in mi an rak silhkhuh (influence) thei. Thil thar an sersiammi Tinbaw (Ship) le Steam Engine ruangah leitlun hmunkip ah khualtlawng in thilri lei le zuar (trade) an tuah. Hriamnaam ṭha (Meithal, Cannon) an rak neihmi in leitlun hmun tinkim ah mi an rak neh.

para 1-2

Cun an naingnganzi (political system) khal a si thotho. Siangpahrang ih thuneihnak kha riteek (limit) an tuahsak, mipi in zalen zetin thuruat theinak le thiltuah theinak (right) an rak nei. Cun acozah khal in pumpak suahmi ruahnak (idea) pawl kha long sak mai loin, pumpak in an coter tikah mi tampi paisa hawl dingah thil phunphun ruat in thil ṭhaṭha an rak suakter thei. Himi pawl ruangah Leitlun zate’n an rak uk thluh theinak a rak si. Tuni khal ah thil thar suahmi tinkim in kan society le politics a thlenghter thei (Every great new technology produces changes in society and politics). Himi steam engine le thil dangdang an rak sersuakmi pawl in trade unionism, khua thar din (town planning), Ram ukawknak thleng danglam (political reform), tlawng thar le democracy pawl a rak suakter ih hi pawl hi huham nei zet an si. Britain ram cu caan malte sungah leitlun thuanthu ah cak zet in a rak thleng aw. Lothlo hnaṭuannak ihsin cetzung hnaṭuannak ah a rak thlengh aw (Britain went through the fastest social transformation in history). Tuni Taluk ram ih a cang rero mi vek a si. Taluk ram khal tuni ah khawte lam ih Lothlo hnaṭuan pawl khuapi ah kai in cetzung ah hna an ṭuan thlang.

  1. 2.     Taluk le Bing Raaldonak (China and Opium War)

Britain ram ramdang ah Trade hawl phah in ram khat hnu ram khat an rak uk vingvo. India khal 1815 kum ihsin a rak uk. Mirang pawl hi lakphak (tea) duh zet mi miphun an rak si. Tukhal ah an si thotho, ka hnaṭuanpi pawl nikhat ah khuat 7, 8 lai an in ringring. Taluk ram khal tea an rak in ve nasa. Cunah lai ah Taluk cun tea tampi a rak suah. Asinan Taluk cun ramleng ih minung pawl thawn zianghman pehtlaih awknak rak nei duh loin a sangka a rak khar ringring. Asinan profit hawl duh zet Mirang pawl cun cuih an lakphak pawl man ol tein laak in Britain ram ah thiar an rak duh. Mirang pawl in an rak theihmi cu Taluk pawl hi riit theinak sii (drugs) an duh zet timi a si ih cuih bing (opium) pawl cu Mirang pawl in India ram ah an ciing. A tawizawng in sim asile Mirang pawl ih riitthei sii pawl a thup te’n Taluk ram sungah an thiar in an zuar, an ngahmi Taluk paisa in Laphak (Tea) an lei ih an ram ah an kuat.

para 2

Taluk mipi riitthei sii an rak cuaituk ih 1839 kum ah 12 million Taluk sii suaimi an rak um. Cumi lai ih Taluk ram uktu Qing siangpahrang pa in hi ti rori cun a cang lo ti’n Lin Zexu timi pa action laak dingah a rak fial. Lin cun Mirang pawl ih neihmi opium (tuni paisa in £160 million) a long thluh ih a rak ur thluh. Lin Zexu cu ram sungah hminthannak a rak ngah nain Mirang pawl ziang vekin an lehrul ding timi a rak ruat baan lo. Mirang pawl in kan tea hi ziangtluk in si an duh ih khui can tiang an feh ngam timi a rak ruat lo. Himi thu ruangah Bing (Opium) timi raal a rak suak. Mirang pawl ih Steam ship, meithal, cannon pawl cun Taluk pawl ih thing thawn sakmi Lawng, naam le thal pawl cu a rak neh. Ral cang hnu kum hnihnak 1860 ah Taluk ram cun a sungkhan ih Mirang hnenah cawhkuan tuni paisa in £2 billion le Hong Kong tel in seikkan khua panga a rak pek. Cuhlei ah Taluk cu a duh lo cingin Leitlun huap pursum leilawnnak (Global Economy) hrangah a sangka a rak ong thok.

  1. 3.     Bawiphun pawl kut tang ih Russian pawl lothlo hnaṭuan dan (Russian Serfdom)

Kum zabu 19 ah Russia ram sungih mi tam sawn cu bawiphun pawl kut tangih sal vekih lothlo hnaṭuantu (serf) an rak si. Serf pawl cu bawiphun (milian loramneitu) pawl ih niehmi le lei theihmi thilri an rak si. Bawiphun pawl ih neihmi leiram ah hna an ṭuan ih an ṭuanman ah rawl an pek. Bawiphun pawl in an thawi, an hrem ih harsatnak a phunphun an rak tuar. Russia ram cu 1547 ihsin kum 300 sunglai Tsar Empire in an rak uk. 1865 ih a cangmi Crimean War ah raal an rak sung. France, Britain le Ottoman Empire pawl in an rak neh. Himi raal an sung hnu in Russian siangpahrang Tsar Alexandre II in Russia ram cu Industrial power ah theng a tum. Cetzung pawl an tuahnak ah serf pawl nasa zetin an rak hmang. Serf pawl khawpi ah feh in hna an ṭuannak in khawpi ih minung tam sawn ah an rak cang. Asinan anmah te’n umnak inn tivek an rak nei thei lo.

Para 3-1

Cumi laifang ah leitlun cangan thiambik pakhat a simi Leo Tolstoy khal in Russia hmanmi Serfdom system hi thleng a rak tum. Amah khal in inn tumpi, leiram kau zet, serf minung 200 a rak nei. A tawi zawng in kan sim asile amah pumpak (personal) in a neihmi harsatnak (zu le lawng-ka-sa suainak) pawl ruangah a nun sir awk in ka nun ka thleng awk a ṭul. Cun Russia khal a thleng awk a ttul timi zumnak a rak nei thok. Brutal industrialization (cetzung ih harsazet in hnatuan mi) le rural tyranny (lai lam ih siatvat nak thin lung thawn miuk daan) ih danglamnak hi ziangvek si ti hi a rak hawl suak duh ruangah a serf pawl hmunkhat ah a rak um. A serf pawl zalennak a pek hngai ih, a leilung neihmi hrekkhat pawl khal a rak pek nain, an rak duh lo. Para 3-2Ziangahtile Tsar in zalennak a pek hngai ding vekin thu a rak suak. Russia minung tam sawn ca kan siar thiam lo le hmai kan nor thei lo ding tiin a serf pawl ca a rak zirh thok ih 1859 ah a umnak area ah tlawng 15 lai a rak ong thei. Alexandre Tsar ih reform plan cu 1861 ah a rak suak. A plan ahcun a hmin lawng in serf pawl zalennak a pek hngai ih daan tampi an thlun ṭullai thotho. Lo hnaṭuantu Serf pawl lungawi lonak a rak suakih sandahpiah (demonstration) an rak tuah thok. Cutin duh lonak a karh vingvo ih Russian revolution (1905 & 1917) tiang a rak thleng. Anmah serf pawl cu ram thlengtu ah an rak cang.

 

  1. 4.     American Ramsung Buainak le American Cetlam Thleng-awknak   (American Civil Wars and American Industrial Revolution)

para 4 - 1

American ram cu Liberty (zalennak, uktu tha lo ih sin suak nak) le Equality (bangrannak) timi ideals base in rak dinmi asinan serf hnakin daan sia sawnmi sal daan an rak hmang. 1800 ah thlanglam America ram ah sal (4) million hrawng an um. Russian pawl vek thotho in Mirang milian pawl ih lo, patpar lo (cotton field) le kuak (tobacco field) pawl ah hna an rak ṭuan. Man ol te’n thil an rak suah thei tikah America ram Economy hrangah a rak tha tuk. Thlanglam America ih Economy cu agricultural base a rak si. Saklam American ih Economy cu Industrial base a rak si. Southern states pawl in industrial thawn ṭhansonak an rak duh lo ruangah Northern lawng ah khua le khua pehtlaih awknak ding tlangleng zin pawl an rak tuah.

American president 11 nak James Polk cun America ram West Coast tiang a rak karhter duh ih raal an rak do aw. 1822 tiang ah Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah le California states pawl hi Mexico ram a rak si. American thawn do awknak in America in 1848 ah a rak laak thluh. Southern states pawl in himi ram thar ah sal daan an rak karhter duh. Asinan Abraham Lincoln le Northern states pawl in karhter an rak duh lo. America ram cu a lai in an tthen aw, sal duhtu, agricultural based economy southern states pawl le industrial economy based northern state ti’n a lai in an ṭhen aw. 1860 ah Southern states 11 cu America Union ihsin an suak ih anmah tein “Confederacy States” an dinh ih cuti’n American civil war a rak thok.

para 4 - 2

Ral a thok lam kum hnih tiang ah southern states pawl in an rak neh deuh, generals ṭhaṭha an rak nei ruangah le fighting spirits ṭha deuh an rak nei. Lincoln cun President a cang pekte ah sal daan a duh lo thu a sim, asinan amah in a rak hlon lohli tum lo, a caan a liam in amahte cemter a rak tum. Asinan raal an rak sung zik tikah southern states pawl ih an nun foundations le economy siatralnak ding duhsan in sal pawl luatnak a pek thluh hngai. Southern states pawl ih Economy cu sal parih hrambunmi a rak si. Cutiin sal pawl cu Union ralkap thawn Confederate pawl an rak do in an rak neh thei. Lincoln le Union cun tlangleng zin le thir tuahnak cetzung (steel industry) pawl an rak neih ruangah cat loin an ṭulmi hriamnam an rak suah thei. Southern cu sal um nawn lo hnu in hriamnam le paisa an nei nawn lo ih ral an rak sung. Industrial power America in Old system America cu kum 4 sung ral a do hnu ah a rak neh hlei ah daan sia zet si mi sal dan a rak cem ter.

Cuti’n America ram cu an rak kom aw thei saal hnu ah tlangleng in hmun tinkim an rak pehtlai awk. 1865 hlanah Missipi tivapi dunglam hnu tlangleng zin a rak tlang lo na’n ral a cem hnu 1869 ah cun East coast ihsin West coast Sanfrancisco tiang a tlang. Himi saknak dingah thir cetzung, locomotives, texitile industry, oil industry pawl an din suak. Cuhlei ah Mirang pawl vekin leitlun thil thar pawl tampi an suah ve. Thuthimnak ah type writers, George Eastman Brownie Camera, Alexandre Bell ih telephone, Thomas Edison ih lightbulbs le DC electric system and Nicola Tesla ih AC electric system le power stations tivek pawl. Cutin America cu 20th century ih a rak ra dingmi challenges hmuahhmuah do thei dingah thazaang a rak nei. Cuhlei ah, ramsung lawng siloin leitlun ramdang parih silhkhuh theinak (influence) an neih theinak dingah tim an rak tuah ve.

  1. 5.     Samurai Japan ihsin Asian Pacific Power ah

1853 ah America cun Nitlaknak lam hoi-in Japan ah an va feh. Commodore Matthew Perry ih homi steam ship thawn Japan ah an va feh. Japan ih um pawl cun an steam ships vek an rak hmu dah lo tikah an mangbang zet. A hlat in an zoh ih ti parih rulhreng vak mi ah an rak ruat. Matthew Perry cu Japan acozah hnenah US President ih nganmi ca a pek. A ca sung ahcun Japan ram Pursum leilawnnak (Trade) hrangah na sangka na ong tul, Trade le Ral an hril ter. Japan cozah cun Taluk ram ah ziang a cang ti an rak thei tikah Trade tuah dingin an rak lungkim. Japan ram in ram ṭhangso pawl a dawi theinak dingah cetzung (industry) tampi an rak ong. Slogan thar an rak suah, cumi cu Dawiman in Thiltha deuh in suah timi “Catch up and Overtake” timi a rak si. Western ram ih mifim pawl an ram ah an ko, tlangleng zin an sak, telegraph lines an tuah, cetzung tampi an ong. Japanese Kimono ai ah suits le lukhum pawl in a rak thlengh.

para 5 - 1

Cuti’n Japan ram modernization lam ah a normi cu Samurai pawl in an rak duh lo. Kum 1600 Japan ram cu civil war an rak nei ih Tokugawa Ieyasu in Segigahara battle ah a dotu pawl a rak neh hnu ihsin Japan cu Samurai daan in kum 200 lai a rak uk. Cun Merji Restoration (restoring imperial rule) in an rak uk awk saal ih Taluk vek thotho in midang thawn pehtlaihnak an rak nei lo. Tom Cruise zuknung “The Last Samurai” in himi thuanthu a sim. Japan ram Industrial revolution a pom ih a ram modernize a tuah tum, Samurai in an rak duh lo. para 5 - 2Samurai leader Saigo ih ralkap 30,000 a hruai ih Japan acozah a do. Asinan China vek thotho in Industrial Revolution ihsin suakmi meithal, cannon, mortar pawl in Japan Samurai naamte cu olte in a rak neh. Japan khal ah industrial revolution ruangah hlanlai an rak uk-awk daan a cem ih san thar daan modernization ah hmai an nor. Japan khal Mirang vek thotho in caan tawite sungah nasa zetin a rak thleng awk ih Asia Pacific ih huham neibikmi ram ah a rak cang. 1905 ah Russian thawn an rak do awk ih Japan in a neh. Tuhlan thuanthu ah Nisuahnak lam ram (Eastern) in Nitlaknak lam ram (Western) pawl a rak neh dah lomi kha Japan cun Industrial Revolution a cosaannak le a fehpinak ruangah Russian Empires a neh thei hlei ah Asia Pacific ih power neibik ram ah a rak cang.

  1. 6.     Africa Scramble (Africa ram pawl cuh-awknak)

Africa ih thuanthu cu America le Japan vek si loin an van a rak sia zet. Africa leiram cu a lian zetmi a si ih zo ih dai hrih lomi a rak si. British explorer Henry M. Stanley in Congo ram ih tiva hi Africa continent zate’n Pursum leilawnnak (Trade) tuahnak ah a ṭha zet ti’n ca a rak suah. Belgium ih siangpahrang Leopold II in a power ramdang ah karhter a rak duh ve ruangah Stanley thawn hnaṭuan a rak thok. Congo in hmun-um pawl thawn ṭuan khawm in tiva kiangkap ah Trade stations pawl sak ding a rak tum. Caan a rei deuhdeuh in local pawl a rak bum hngai. Ramneitu local Africans pawl laksawng a rak pek hngai, an umnak ram thawn thleng aw dingah. Cuih laksawng pawl cu local pawl in laksawng menmen ah an ruat, an umnak leiram thawn thleng awk a rak simi an rak thei lo. Cuti’n 1875 ah Congo ram (Belgium ram hnakin let 76 a tummi ram) cu King Leopold in a rak control ṭheh ih amah te’n King Sovereign of the Congo Free State ka si ti’n a rak ti awk. Zalen (Free) ti’n a hmang nain a lonmi leiram ah Africans pawl duh lo cingin hna a rak ṭuanter. An duh lo asile a that hngai, an kut a tan hngai, an khua a urkaang hngai.

para 6 - 1

Congo ram cu vuiho (ivory), labar (rubber) le thing (timber) pawl suak ṭha zetmi ram a si ih Belgium ah a thiar, asinan mipi hnenah pek saal loin amah in a myat zate a rak laak thluh. Leopold-II nih cu Congo ah 10 million lai a that ti’n an zum, cucu tuihsan aw kam in cu Genocide a si. Amah in cu ka tuah hrimhrim lo ti’n a el nain, 1900 ah Belgium acozah in Congo ram cu acozah kut tangah an ret. Hiti’n a kut sungin laak theinak dingah Khristian mibur pawl (Christians groups), Thuthangca (news paper) le pumpak lungawi lonak (individual outrages) pawl in campaign tuahnak ruangah a si. Leitlun ih a hmaisabik tuahmi International Human Rights Campaign ah a rak cang. Asinan Africa cu Western powers pawl in an ram cu an cuh aw sinsin. Africa Continent sungih ummi ram zate in western powers (Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Portugal le Italy) ram pawl in an rak uk thluh.

  1. 7.     Santhar Huham Cakzet Ram pawl Suahkehnak  (Birth of Modern Super Powers)

Ram le ram, pakhat le pakhat zuam awknak cu leitlun daan a si. 1914 ah Britain, France le Russia in Germany le Austria raal an do awk, leitlun raal a rak si hrih lo. Himi raal cu a hmaisabik Full scale industrial war a rak si. Zo in raaldo a thiam sawn ti lawng siloin, zo in hriamnam ṭhasawn a suah thei timi zuam-awknak khal a rak si thotho, thuthimnak ah, vanzam, tanks, artilerry, mortar etc… America cu himi European buainak sungah a rak tel duh lo. 1917 lawng ah German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann in an thinlung a thlengter. Britain cu leitlun hmunkip ih a Siangpahrang uknak ram (Empire) ihsin thilri (goods) tampi a ram sungah shipping a tuah ringring. Germany cun Britain supply a chet duh ruangah unrestricted submarine warfare a rak thok ih Britain Lawng pawl lawng siloin American Lawng pawl khal tipithuanthum parah a rak siatsuah. Germany cun America a thinheng dingih raal ah a ra tel ve ding an thei nain, Zimmermann cun distraction plan a rak nei. A rak tum daan cu, Mexico in USA rak laak (invade) ding hi a si. USA ih Mexico ram pawl a rak lonmi ram pawl German bomnak in laak saal ding hi a si. Asinan, cumi ca cu British pawl in an rak kai ngah, America cu thinheng in raal sungah a rak lut ih Leitlun Ralpi voikhatnak (World War I) a rak cang.

para 7

Himi a tummi khuakhannak (plan) cu a rak hlawhtling lo tikah Zimmerman cun plan dang a rak tuah. Ram tampi in an bur ruangah neh thei lo ding ti a thei. Cunah Russia kha raal ihsin suakter ding a rak duh. Cu milai ah Lenin cu Bolshevik (a revolution communist factions who wanted Russia out of WW1) movement a rak hoha ruangah thawng an rak tlak (exile). Lenin le a ho pawl in cu Russia raal ihsin cawlter an rak duh. Zimmerman nih cun Lenin bomnak a rak offer. Lenin cun Russia ram thlengh a rak duhtuk ruangah German paisa le bomnak laak in October 1917 ah Bolshevik Revolution a rak tuah suak ih leitlun hmaisabik Communist State a rak din ih minung 160 million ih uktu ah a rak cang. Cuti’n Russia cu WW-I in an rak suak. Zimmerman cu Eastern ah cu a rak hlawhtling, asinan America ih telnak in Germany cu raal a rak sung. 1918 ih raaldonak a rak cem tikah, leitlun stages parah huham nei le cakzetmi ram pahnih a rak suak, one Capitalist and other Communists. Kan santhar (modern) leitlun cu Empires pawl si nawn loin himi mass ideologies in uk a rak si thlang. Zimmerman cun leitlun ih cakbik ram thar pahnih a rak cangter. Lenin a thi hnu ahcun Joseph Stalin in Russia cu modern superpower ah a canter ih America thawn kum zabu 20th sung hmuahhmuah (Cold War) an rak do aw.

Thunetnak

Industrial Revolution hi leitlun minung thuanthu thlengtertu taktak a rak si (The industrial revolution was the biggest story to happen to mankind). San hlun daan (class thleidannak, serf, sal le hlanlai daan pawl an a thiter in santhar nun a rak suakter. A thok tu bik cu steam engine ruangah a rak si, cui engiene ruangah tlanglengzin le tlangleng saknak ding ah thir, a fehnak ding ah coal pawl an tul in cui cetzung pawl a rak karh ter sinsin. Himi thleng-awknak hi a cawl hrih loin tuni khal ah a cang rero lai. Thuthimnak ah, China cun a hrekkhat ram pawl cu a thok khal kan thok hrih lo. A tlun ca ah cetzung thu pawl ka ngan tam deuh ih Agricultural a cem tinak a si lo, kan Lothlawh daan khal a thlengter. Tuni ah machines tum pipi thawn leitlun ih a ṭhang reromi population ṭulmi pe thei dingah daihcangzet (efficient) in hnatuan theinak caan ṭha industrial revolution in a rak pek.

A fiangmi thil pakhat cu himi Industrial Revolution in ram fate takte a simi Britain kha Leitlun uk thei dingah power a pek. America, Russia le Japan pawl tuni ah huham (power) nei zetmi ram an rak sinak hi Industrial revolution an rak pom ruangah a si. Industrialization cun minung living standard a rak sangter, kan khuaruahnak le kan tikcu caan hman daan pawl tiang a rak thlengter ṭheh. Asinan ol tein a rak thleng aw lo, milai nun tampi ih nunnak liam in thisen nasa zetin a luang hnu lawng ah a rak thleng aw mi a si. Thuhmaihruai ih ka sim zo vekin leitlun ih thleng-awknak tampi in thiisen tampi an luangter. Taluk ram ih Bing raal Opium war, American civil war, Japan acozah le samurai pawl do awknak, Western ram pawl an thazaang zuam awknak, Africa ram an rak uknak ruangih mithi pawl, Russian revolution, pawl tla hi himi industry revolution ruangah a si.

Joseph Stalin in Russia ram Agricultural based ihsin Industrial Power ah a thlengternak le Mao Zedong ih “The Great Leap Forward” programme ruangah milai thawng tampi (millions) in an nunnak an liam. Cun miring pawl cetzung ih an rak tuan nak ah harsatnak tam pi an rak tong. A ṭhatblam pan in a cawl thei hrih lo vekin siatnak lam khal ah a cawl hrih cuang lo. Tuni ah kan hmuhmi Africa ih ramsung buainak (civil war), nauhak raalkap (child soldiers) le tapung (rebel) pawl ih mipi an hrem, an kut an tanmi daan pawl hi anmah te’n ah phuahmi thil a si lo, himi industrial revolution lai ih Western powers pawl ih rak hmanmi daan pawl an cawng mi a rak si. Industrial revolution cun kan leilungpi ih hmuihmel nasa zetin a rak thlengter, asinan thleng-awknak dingah a man sangzet an rak pek.

By Van Cung Lian

Na ruahnak

One Response to Cetlam Ṭhansonak le Huham Picang Ram Pawl Suahkehnak

  1. joseph hram nei lian   September 6, 2013 at 5:58 pm

    Ka lung awi na Sa Thu tam pi taimak zet Leh paisat tam pi cem ih na rak ngan mi ka rak sir ngah ve ih,pathin in tui hnu khal ah lei tlun Thu kan laica ih ngan thei dg in mal lo sawn vi seh.