Colonel Hrang Thio le 1949 ih Ramsung Ralpi Thu – Part 4

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By vcth on July 29, 2014.

Salai Van Cung Lian UK

Hmawbi Doawknak:

Insein ralpi theh in Hrang Thio cu an Chin Rifle 1 ih hmunkhuarnak ah lai daan in nehnak puai sunloihnak an tuah. Amah rori lai biar kaihin, Hakha peng ih “Cikei Fim” timi cikei an kap tik ih, puai an rak tuah ih an laam vek in pawpi phaw thlir phah in lai lam thawn nehnak sunloihnak a tuah. Cutin an battalion zaten thla 2 sung hrawng an cawl. Asinan ral do ding a cem hrih lo. Htan-tapyin lam ah KNDO pawl an cangvai lai thotho ih Hrang Thio cu KNDO pawl dawi hlo dingah tlun lam in thu an pek. KNDO pawl do dingin Chin Rifle (1) ihsin Company pali cu Hmawbi lam ah July thla ihsin an pok. Company No.2 le No.3 cu Hmawbi kiang Hla-pada do dingin ah an tim tuah. Hrang Thio cu ziangtin hi ral ka do ding tiah nasa zetin a ruat ih, August ni 6 ni ah do thok ding in a rel cat. August ni 5 ni, sun nazi 12 ah Company No.2 cu Hla-pada lam ah a rak feh ter. Cutin an feh lai ah KNDO pawl thawn an tongaw ih sun ah nasa zetin an kap aw. Cui thilcang pawl cu Tetkatu Sein Tin ih Aungsanturiyah Thai Cawn timi cabu sungah a tang lam vek in a ngan.

“Doawknak awn cu Hrang Thio te ih sankhan ihsin a thawm theih thei a si. Thuhla a tha lo. Hrang Thio cu doawknak thuhla helhkam in zaanvar a it thei lo. Zinglam nazi pa 5:00 ah ral hmun ihsin thu an than, ralkap 3 an thi ih 4 hriamhma an tuar ti thu. Hrang Thio cu ralhmun feh dingin a tim tuah. Thai Cawn in “na hrang tihnung a um, thupruk in an lo do ding, Curiangah ralkap hrekkhat thawn lo thlun seh” tiah a ti. Nan Hrang Thio cu a thu a thencat zo mi a thleng dah lo ruangah Thai Cawn in khal a el nawn lo. A tikcucaan cu zinglam nazi 5:15 hrawng a si. Hrang Thio cun “Keimah rori ka feh a tul. Culole ka ralkap pawl an thanau ding. Hriamhma tuarmi ralkap pawl tla kan zohkhen tul” tiah a ti. Cutin Thai Cawn ih Jeep parah a kai. Thai Cawn in mawtaw a mawng ih Hrang Thio cu a kiangah a to. A dunglam ah sii vai pawl a khatin an phur ih ralkap sibawi Capt. Mg Dwe a to, cun Capt. Thla Mawng le Lance Corporal Rua Khar an to. Thai Cawn in mawtaw maung phah in “kan kir sal le a tha ding” tiah a tiih Hrang Thio in, “Thai Cawn, ziangah kan kir ding. Minung cu san khat ah voi khat lawng kan thi. Na tih maw si, na raltha ruangah ka kiangah ka lo ko mi si” tiah a ti. Thai Cawn cun “Kei ih ka nun nak cu tamat lawng a si, nang ih na nun nak cu ngamu a si. Thih cu ka tih lo, nang mah nun nak hrang ah ka ruat ruang ah si” tiah a sawn sal.

Cuticun Hmawbi thleng zik Phungki tlawng kaing ihsin KNDO pawl ih thupruk do an tuar. Mawtaw dunglam ih a totu sibawi Mg Dwe cu a lu ah kap a tuar ih a hmun ah a thi cih. Hrang Thio le Capt Thla Mawng tla an kawng veve ah meithal kap an tuar ih an ding thei nawn lo. Thai Cawn cu meithla in an mawtaw an kap ngah veten mawtaw par ihsin a dawp. A tipuan angki cu meithal kapnak ah a ong thluh. Cun a pistol meithal cu mawtaw parah a um ti le Stengun pakhat cu Hrang Thio in a keng ti a thei. Cutin a hril aw ih Hrang Thio hnen ih Stengun cu a lak ih mawtaw phen in Capt. Rua Khar thawn ral pawl cu an kap sal. Zinglam nazi 5:30 hrawng a si ih, Thai Cawn cun thingkung kiang ih um KNDO ralkap pakhat a kap that ih, cupa hmin ih sin, meithal a kap awk ter. Malte rei lo ah, KNDO pawl in “Chin ralkap a si ual” tiah an thei ih an kap ciamco. Thai Cawn le Rua Khar tla cu Hrang Thio tan in dung an sip. Cutin sakhan lam ah an tlan lai ah Rua Khar cu a bang tukih a tluk. Thai Cawn in Rua Khar cu a pawk ih zinglam nazi 7:00 hrawngah Sakhan an thleng. Sakhan ih Captain Paul hnen ah thu an than lohli. Capt. Paul tla Hrang Thio te ruatin a armour mawtaw (thirihkham mi raldonak motor) a lakih a pok vurvo. Capt. Paul ih mawtaw tla thupruk ih kap a tuar ih kaih a tuarmi cu Thai Cawn te in an vun hmu ban. Thai Cawn te cun ralkap an khawm sal ih pumpelh zin thlun in ral hmun ah an feh sal. Hrang Thio le a dang ral bawi pa 2 cu KNDO ralkap 27 in an kulh. Thai Cawn le Chin ralkap 30 in rinlopin cui KNDO ralkap 27 cu an kulh sin bet. KNDO ralkap pawl cu an lau. Thai Cawn le a ho pawl in KNDO pawl meithal thlak dingin an dil. KNDO pawl tla in humhimten thlah dingin an dil ve. A rei hlan ah Company No.1 ihsin ralkap a rak thelng bet. KNDO pakhat tho tahrat in kutkaih bomb thawn ralbawi pawl nunnak a hringhro phah in suahnak lamzin an dil. Culaifang ah Company No.2 ihsin ralkap pawl an ra thleng. Cutin netabik ah KNDO pawl meithal an thlak. Hrang Thio te cu a rang theih bik in Mingalardone siizung ah an kuat.

Hrang Thio ih ni netabik (7,8 August 1949):

August 7 ni ah Hrang Thio ih thuhla a tha tuk lo. Meithal kah a tuarnak a kawng ih hriamhma par deuh in an tan. August 8, a dinhmun a roh sinsin. Hrang Thio cu cui a hriamhma ruangah ram hrangah Aug ni 8 niah a nunnak a rak liam ta. Cuini, zinglam ah an Chin Rifle (1) ih ralkap zaten Hla-pada doawknak ih nunnak a laimtu pawl ruakvuinak ah an feh. Zaanlam nazi pa 4:00 hrawngah an duhdawt, an upat zetmi an Commanding Officer Hrang Thio a thih thu an theih tik ah ralkap zaten riahsia, lungzur in an tap. Hlapada ral hmun ih ralkap pawl tla a rnag thei bik in kir ding in thu an pek. An battalion ih an nu fa pawl khal an reh sia zet. Hrang Thio a thi ti thu in Kawlram pi linghnin bangin a hnin ter. A thih thu radio le thuthangca pawl ah an phuang. Vuangyi chuk le rampi hotu pawl in Chin Battalion 1 zung ah riahsianak capi pawl an kuat cio. Hrang Thio a thih hnu ah Major (Colonel neh hnu ah) Van Kulh ih Chin Rifle (1) cu a ho ih KNDO pawl cu Thailand ramri tiang an nor thei. 1950 June thla lai hrawng in cu Cozah lam in ziang hmuahhmuah an uk thei thlang. Asinan KNDO pawl cu KNLO hmin keng in tuni tiang dothlengnak an tuah rero lai.

Col. Hrang Thio ih ruak vuinak:

A ruak vuinak cu rampi milarsang pawl sunloih ruak vuinak (state funeral) in caan hman a si. 1949 August 15 zinglam nazi 7:40 ah a ruak vuinak an thok. A ruak cu Mingalardone siizung in ralkap mawtaw thawn phur a siih zinglam nazi pa 8:00 ah bengkhaya band in rampi hla an tum ih rampi thantar cu thuam zim ihsin thum vivo in thuam hrek tiang thlak a si, riahsianak langternak a si. Hrang Thio ih ruak kuang cu rampi thantar in an khuh. Chin battalion 1 ih ralkap pawl in uniform kim thawn an Hrang Thio ih ruak cu, armoured mawtaw par ah an ret.  Rampi ralkap Lei, Ti (Navy), Van (Airforce) ralbawi pawl, Rampi uknak lam Vuangyi pawl, ramdang tanzung ih bawi pawl, Burma le Chin battalion ih ralbawi pawl, rualpi pawl le Insein mipi tla cu ruak vuinak mawtaw thawn nuam teten a dung in an thlun. Ruak vuinak a thlah tu pawl cu peng 1 lai a sau.

Zinglam nazi pa 9:00 hrawng ah a ruak cu Chin Rifle 1 ih headquarter ah a tleng. Chin Affaris Minister Pu Vum Tu Maung, Burma Army thlang lam (sit-hta-nah chuk) in Brigadier Kyaw Zaw, Myanmar’s Motion Pictures ih sungtuan U Chin Sein, Chin Rifle 2 ih C.O Lt.Col Son Khaw Pau le Maj. Van Kulh pawl in ruak vuinak ah thu an sim. Cun ralkap lam pawl kom 45 pawl in a sangsang in zun-ngaihpar peknak an nei. Vuangyi pawl, ralbawi pawl le cozah department pawl ih upatnak zun-ngaihpar pawl tla a ruak kap ah an ret. Cui caan ah raldonak vanzam pathum Chin Rifle 1 head quarter tlun ihsin an zam vurvo ih Hrang Thio cu van tlun ihsin upatnak an pek.

Rampi in Col. Hrang Thio ih ruak cu Aa-zarni Thlanmual ah phum ding in an timtuah nan Hrang Thio ih a nu le Falam lam ih sungkhat pawl in a suahnak khua Than Hniar (Sakta) ah phum dingin an dil. Cutin Hrang Thio ih a ruak cu Mingalardone vanzam tual ah ralkap daan in upatnak pek in netabik an thlah ih Yangon in Kalaymyo ah phur. Kalay ih ralkap pawl tla in ralkap daan in upatnak thawn an rak hmuak. Kalaymyo ihsin Lumbang tiang mawtaw thawn phur a siih Lungbang ihsin Falam tiang an khawpi pawl in an liang rorin an phur. Falam Aa-kasa zung ihsin a sungkhat pawl, rualpi pawl, Cozah lam bawi pawl le mipi in Chin pa raltha Hrang Thio upatnak an rak pek cio. Aakasa zung ihsun Pastor Thang Hngel ih caan a hmang theh hnuah, a ruak cu a suahnak khua Than Hniar (Sakta) ah an phur.

Hrang Thio ih nu cu a tar zo ruang ah, a fapa ih ruak cu Falam ah a rak hmuak thei lo. A fapa ruak khua a thleng ih, a fa a tah nak aw an theih cun an khuaza ten tap lo in an um thei lo. A ruak cu a suahnak khua ah zaan li an ret ih a ni ngatnak ah an vui liam. Cutin Col. Hrang Thio cu a suahsemnak khua ah kum khua a cawl ta. Rampi hrangih a pumpeknak pawl tla rampi in a hngilh lo. 1955 ah Vuangyi Chuk U Nu in le 1958 ah General Newin in Thanhiar ih a thlan ah zun-ngaihpar thawn upatnak an pek.

Chin ralkap pawl ih rampi hrang pum an peknak le sunloihnak:

Lt. Colonel Hrang Thio cu a thih hnu in Colonel ah rank kaih a si hlei ah upatnak “Sithu” khal pek a si. Chin ralkap pawl cu kawlrampi tekdarh lo dingin pumpek ih a zuamtu an si. Chin battalion pawl ih commanding officer pawl a simi Col. Hrang Thio, Lt. Col Son Khaw Pau le Lt. Col Lian Cin Zam pawl tla cu Kawlram pi kuai lo dingin a khamtu pawl lakah mi thupi zet pawl an si. 1949 January – May tiang ah Chin Rifle 1 le 2 ihsin ralkap 300 lenglo an nunnak an liam. Chin Rifle 1 ihsin ralkap 220 tluk an nunnak an liam tiah Capt. Than Tawng in Pu Rodinga hnen ah a rak sim dah. Chin Rifle 1 ihsin ralkap pa 6 cu Kawlram pi ih ralthatnak lam sunloihnak a sangbik mi “Aungsan Turiyah”, “TihaThura” le “Thurah” upatnak pawl an co. Cui sunloihnak pawl cu mai nunnak ruat lo in ram hrangah mai tuanvo felfai ten a taun tu pawl hrang ih sunloihnak a si. Cui sunloihnak a cotu pawl cu Capt. Thai Cawn (Aungsan Turiyah le Thura), Second Lt. Ca Thuan (TihaThura), Lt. Hniar Ceu (Thura), Lt. Thang Sui (Thura), Lt. Ngun Nawl (Thura), Lt Run Ling (Thura) le Coporal Nawl Sum (Thura) pawl an si. Kawlram pumpi ah Aungsan Turiyah tacik ngahtu pa 6 an um ih nunglai ih ngahtu cu Chin Rifle (1) ihsin Capt. Thai Cawn lawng a si.

Lt. Col Son Khaw Pau homi Chin Rifle 2 in tla sunloihnak a cotu minung 64 an um. Thura ngahtu 12, a palitnak ralthatnak buaih ngahtu 24, a pangatnak buaih Supreme Commander‘s Certificate of Gallantry Award (SCCOG) ngahtu 27 le a paruknak Certificate of Honour (COG) ngahtu 1 tla an si. Chin Hills Anti-Tank Regiment ihsin Major JS Jeya Raj, Capt. Lian Cung Nung, Lieutenant Soe Lwin, Lieutenant Van Hmung, Lieutenant Van Ceu, Lieutenant That Ling, Lieutenant Ba Lin, 2nd Lieutenant Sm Maung le a dang Non Commission Officers 29 pawl tla in sunloihnak co ding ah hminpek an si.

Thunetnak:

Hrang Thio thu ka zingzoinak ah Hrang Thio ih ni netabik thu thawn pehpar aw in Pu Ceu Nawn ih nganmi le Tekkatu Seintin ih ngan mi Thai Cawn thuanthu hi an bang aw lo. Asinan, an suah pi mi cu thukhat a si ko. A ni ih thucang tha ten study ka tuah tik ah Tekkatu Sein Tin ih ngan mi hi a fiang sawn, a awm ang sawn, thil a cang dan khal a sang sang ten a sim thei sawn. Asi an, ka sim vek in, danglamtuk mi danglamnak cu a si lo.

Colonel Hrang Thio cu paraltha, titsa nei tu, midingfel a si micu a nun in a lang ter. Chin Rifles, Kawlram ralbawi le Kawlram ralkap zate in upatmi pa khat a si. Mikom khal a thiam, ralkap rank niam, rank sang le Vuangyi le rampi President pawl thawn tiang nelaw zetin pawlkom theitu a si. A thih lai khal ah maktara State Funeral rorin a ruak thlahnak an tuah mi zoh in, Kawlram pi in ziang tluk in a upat, ziang tluk in Hrang Thio a zoh sang timi kan hmu thei. Minung cu, upattlak lomi pawl cu ziang tluk in rank sang hman hai seh la, an dung lam ah thuthup rel ding a um theu. Hrang Thio hrang ah thuthup rel ding a ral kap le a tuan pi pawl in an thei lo.

Nupi par ah titsa nei lo ih, midang nunau hrang ruang ih KNDO raldo dingmi minung pawl a si lo khal fiangten kan hmu thei. Ziang ruang ah ramsung ralpi a rak cang ih ziang ruang ah Chin Rifles le Hrang Thio khal kumpi Acozah lam in an do timi cu kan fiang ding ka zum. Cuhleiah U Nu khal, a cauk sung ah Buddist biaknak lam ah pumpek zet tu a si timi kan hmu thei. Cun, a fanu u pabik San San Nu khal 1949 ah kum 9 te lawng a si lai thu khal a cauk sung ah fiangten kan hmu thei. U Nu khal in, kumkim hrih lo mi a fanu duhtak cu, a mai hmailam hrang a that theinak ding ah Hrang Thio (kum 29) thawn pesa ding cu a cang thei lo mi thil a si. Himithu ah U Nu in ka fanu ka lo pek ding a ti, ti lawng si lo in San San Nu in zunghruk a pek tin an zum thu khal Lairam Milangsar Pawlle Pathian Kutneh Mawizia cabu sungah “A zung hruk cu San San Nu (U Nu fanu) ih pek mi a si hmang ti-ah zumnak a um”tin an ngan. Cun Facts of Falam cabu sung khal ah“San San Nu (U Nu ih fanu) in Lt. Col. Hrang Thio cu zunghruk a pe dah, tiah an rel t’heu” tin thaten zingzoi nak nei ta lo in, kawlahalah vekin an ngan. Kum 9 nauhak nute nih kum 29 pa zunghruk a pek ding cu, a cang thei lo mi thil a si. Hrang Thio homi ralkap pawl le Chin ralbawi pawl Capt Than Tawng, Pu Za Thluai pawl khal in hithu kan thei dah lo tiah an sim. Col Khen Za Mung khal hithu thawn pehpar aw in Chinworld in an sut tik ah “hivek thu ka thei dah lo” tiah a sim. Pu Ro Dinga khal, 1999 kum ah, U Nu fanu nautabik Than Than Nu thawn Newdelhi ih an tong aw lai ah, himi thu a sim tik ah, Than Than Nu in “hithu cu ka thei dah lo. Rambuai lai ih kan innsungsang in hum tu Chin ralkap hnen ah kan sung in kan lung awi zet”  tiah a sim. Hithu cu thuphan thu ti a fiang. Hrang Thio vek paraltha, midingfel mi hivek thuphan thawn an pehtlaih awk ter hi, kan nih Laimi nih uar pi in promote ciam co ding a si lo. Hrang Thio ih ralthatnak le ramhrang ih a nunnak a peknak pawl uar pi in au pi sawn ding kan si.

Hi thuphan (kaw la ha lah) thu thawn pehpar aw in, Hrang Thio ih sinak, a ralthatnak le ram hrang ih a rak tuannak pawl hnahsik tu pawl ih thuphuah mi a si ding tiah ka zum. Hrang Thio le Chin ralkap pawl ih an ralthat zia, ramhrang in an rak thupit zia pawl tuni ah Chin mipi in kan thei nawn lo. Hrang Thio thu kan rel khal si le, U Nu in a fanu a pek tum thu lam lawnglawng rel a si deuh thlang. Hrang Thio le Chin ralkap pawl ralthatnak rel lo ih, hivek thuphan pawl rel ding ah an tuah hrim mi a si ding tiah ka zum. Kan nih Chin mipi cun, hi thuphanthu hi lei nawn lo in, Hrang Thio le Chin ralkap pawl ih ramhrang ih an nun an pek nak, an ral that nak pawl rel sawn ding kan si.

Cun, Chin pawl in Karen pawl par ah titsa kan phaut, Karen pawl hi rak do ding kan si lo nan tivek in a rel tu kan tam zet. Hi ramsung ralpi thu khal kan rel duh ngai ngai lo, ziang ah ti le, Karen pawl par ah titsa phaut tu kan si tivek in kan ruat aw theu. Hi thu thawn pehpar awk in, Chin Rifles pawl in Karen miphun an do mi a si lo. Pawlkom pakhat a si mi, KNDO an rak do mi a si. Chin Rifles le KNDO kar lak ah khal, kawlram pi kan do theh hnuah, kan then aw ding ti vek lungkimnak khal evidence a um hrim hrim lo. Chin mi pawl cu kan titsa neinak ah kan hminthang. Chin Rifles ih ralkap pawl khal cu midingfel, mi yuuta le titsa neinak ah an hmin thang. Danvekin, mirang kut tang ihsin zalennak kan lak, Dan vekin Acozah kumpi sung ah kan ralkap pawl khal an um. Dan vekin, Acozah kumpi parah titsa neitu ding kan si. Dan lo in Kawlram Acozah pi rakdotu pawl cu, Chin ralkap pawl ih tuanvo a si mi, Acozah ral pawl cu do thluh a rak si. Ram humhimnak ding hrang ah KNDO lawng kan rak do lo, Bo Naw Sai homi Kachin pawl, Communist (Thanthar Sen le Rang), Mujahit ral, MNDO pawl khal Chin Rifles pawl in an rak do. Chin Hills Battalion ih Acozah parah an rak lung awi lo nak khal, Hpalaing raldonak ih an rualpi ralkap pawl a lak in an thi men mi par ah an lung awi lo mi a rak si. KNDO ih Chin ralkap 29 a rak thahnak khal hi Chin Rifles le KNDO pawl kar lak ih huatawknak a suak ter tu thil tumpi pa khat a rak si. Col Khen Za Mung khal in Chin World thawn an thusutawk nak ah “Kawl lam ah kan ding mi si lo, Kumpi Acozah tlun ah titsa kan nei mi a si” tiah a sim. Chin Rifles ih ralkap pawl cu ralkap an sinak ih, rampi humhim ding ih tuanvo an nei mi an rak tuan mi a si. Culaiih ram buai nak ruang ah, KNDO pawl khal ral an rak tho, Chin Rifles pawl khal an tuanvo a si mi, rampi an humhim mi sawn a si.

Tuniah Chin ralkap pawl cu Kawlram pi rak humtu an si mi thuanthu a hlo vi vo thlang. KNDO pawl Yangon ih an feh thei lonak ding ih Thazi khua a humtu, KNDO pawl Yangon an feh lam ih Daik-U ihsin a rak kham tu Chin Rifle (3), ralpi thok hlan ihsin KNDO le MNDO pawl a rak do tu le, Insein ralpi ih ralneh tu Chin Rifle (2) le Insein le Kawlram pi cu KNDO kutsung ih thleng lo ding ih a kham bik tu Chin Rifle (1) pawl ih thuanthu roling cu kan nih Chin mi pawl in nung ter ringring ding mi a si.

Hrang Thio khal a nunnak tiang a rak liam. Col Van Khul khal in “Col. Hrang Thio, BGM rak um hlah seh law Yangon khualipi cu ral kut chungah a tla cang hnga. Col. Hrang Thio nih Yangon Khualipi cu a rak khamh, Yangon khua humtu a si” tin acauk sung ah thuanthu a ngan. Hrang Thio lawng siloin, Chin Rifles ralkap zaten Yangon le Kawlram humtu ah an rak tel thluh. Himi ralpi sung ah Chin ralkap 500 hrawng an nun nak an liam. Acozah kumpi ih pek mi upatnak pawl ah khal Chin Rifles ihsin a ngah tu an tam zia zoh in, ziang tluk in Chin ralkap pawl ih tuah mi a thupi tihi kan hmu thei. Chin ralkap pawl ih thupitzia cu Irrawady Media neitu Aung Zaw in a cahram ‘The Battle of Insein Never Really Ended’ timi sung ah “Insein pi humhimnak hrang ih, nasa zetin a tel tu pawl cu Chin Rifles 1, 2 le 3 pawl an si” tiah a sim.

Himi ralpi ih Chin Rifles le KNDO pawl do awknak ruang ah tuni ah Chin le Karen kar lakah siatnak a thelng ter ti a zumtu pawl khal an um. A tlun ih ka sim zo vekin, Chin Rifles ih ralkap pawl cu Karen miphun an do mi a si lo, pawlkom pakhat an rak do mi a si. Karen pawl an rak hua tuk ruangah an do mi a si lo. Kawl mi pawl an duh tuk ruang ah khal ral an rak do mi a si lo. Ralkap ih tuanvo, rampi humhim ding mi tuanvo an rak tuan mi a si. KNDO pawl khal a cang lo thei lo din hmun an thleng ruang ah ral an rak tho ve mi a si. Karen pawl cu Chinmi pawl in rak bawm tu an si. Zumnak thlaici a rak tuh tu le, Saklam laitlang ih fimthiamnak lam in rak tuah sak tu khal ah Karen pawl an si ih, Karen pawl cu kan kyee-zu-shin an si ringring ding. Asinan, hi ralpi thu ah kan tuanvo cio kan tuan ruangah a cang mi a si ruang ah, Karen pawl par ah titsapoh tin ruat ding kan si lo. Hi ralpithu ih Chin ralkap pawl ralthat dan khal hmai hngal pi zet ding kan si.

Kan nih Chinmi pawl cu Kawlram pi zalennak a ngah theinak ding ah si seh, Kawlram tiih ram a ra suak theinak ding khal ah si seh, Kawlram pi a thek darh dingmi dinhmun ihsin a humhim tu khal ah siseh hmainor ih a teltu kan si timi hi hngalpi ringring ding kan si.

(Cangantu Salai Van Cung Lian cu UK ram ih University of Nottingham ihsin Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng) a theh suak hnu ah, England ramih CH2M HILL timi company ah Engineer hna a tuan rero lai tu a si.)

Col. Hrang Thio

Photo Credit @ Pu Ceu Nawn

Col Hrang Thio

Photo Credit @ Pu Nun Uk

References:

1)    Theih Hliah Manlo Hrang Thio Biography by Pu Ceu Nawn

2)    ဖလမ္းအဆင္႔ျမင္႔တန္းေက်ာင္း (၇၅) နွစ္ျပည္႔မဂၢဇင္း၊ဖလမ္းျမိဳ႔႕ႏွစ္တစ္ရာျပည့္မဂၢဇင္း၊အမွတ္ (၁) ဖလမ္းျမိဳ႔႕အေျခခံပညာအထက္တန္းေက်ာင္းႏွစ္တစ္ရာျပည့္မဂၢဇင္းမ်ား

3)    Building The Tatmadaw: Myanmar Armed Forces since 1948 by Maung Maung Aye

4)    Memoirs of the Four-Foot Colonel by General Smith Dun

5)    တာေတစေနသား by Ex. Burma Prime Minister U Nu

6)    အေမွာင္ၾကားကဗမာျပည္ (အနီးေခတ္ ဗမာျပည္ နိုင္ငံေရးလွုပ္ရွားမွုသမိုင္းအက်ည္း ၁၉၄၉၂၀၀၀) by ၀င္းတင္႔ထြန္း

7)    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All_Burma_Trade_Union_Congress

8)    Bo (Ex. Brigadier) Kyaw Zaw’s Autobiography, obtained from the Communist Party of Burma website

9)    Zo History by Dr. Vum Son Suantak

10) A Biography of Aungsanthurihyah Captain Taik Chun by Tekkatu Sein Tein

11) The Outbreak of the KNDO and MNDO article by Lt.Col Thian Khaw Khai, published in Yangon Siyin Baptist Church, Silver Jubilee Magazine (Supplied to me by Pu Thang Za Dal)

12) ဗိုလ္မွူးၾကီးတင္ေမာင္ေရးသားေသာတိုင္ျပည္ကနုနု၊မုန္တိုင္းကထန္ထန္

13) The Autobiography of BC 3666 Zeya Kyaw Htin Colonel VAN KULH, BGM & BAR (Rtd.)

14) The Chin/Zo People of Bangladesh, Burma and India: An Introduction (XVI) by Pu Thang Za Dal

15) Interview with Colonel Khen Za Mung conducted by Chin World Media in 2011

16) Personal Interview with Pu Ro Dinga (Assistant Co-ordinator of Chin Forum: www.chinforum.org)

17)Post-Colonial Transition, AID and the Cold War in South-East Asia: Britain, The United States and Burma (1948-1962) by Matthew Foley, MA

18)The Battle of Insein Never Really Ended, an article in the Irrawady magazine by its founder and Chief Editor Aung Zaw:

http://www2.irrawaddy.org/opinion_story.php?art_id=15080

19) Hla Oo’s Blog: Burma In Limbo: http://hlaoo1980.blogspot.co.uk/p/burma-in-limbo.html. Although I did not refer his materials in my article, I obtained some of the background information from this blog.

20) The Chin Hills Battalion File from the British Library, London (Shelfmark number MSS EUR/ 250)

21)Lt.Col Hrang Thio le Kan Kawlram by Pu Za Thluai

22)Zuk a tamsawn cu Falam ih Pu Nun Uk hnen in sin ka ngah mi pawl an si. In hawl sak tu, Za Sui hnen ah khal lungawinak tampi ka nei.

Na ruahnak