Kan Chin Thuanthu Sungih Lt.J.F Steward Thihthu ah L.H. Sakhong ih Simmi Thlirnak

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By vcth on July 30, 2014.

Salai Van Cung Lian (UK)

1) Thuhmaihruai:

Lt. John F Steward (1st Battalion of Leinster Regiment) cu lamzin thar ceknak ding ih Survey a tuah laiah, Chinmi pawl ih thah a rak tuar, tiah mirang pawl ih nganmi cauk tampi sung ah kan hmu thei. Lt.Steward ih thah a tuar thu ah, zo in a that, zo pawl an tel, ziang ruang ah an that timi pawl thuhla hi mirang pawl ih Laitlang thuanthu an ngan mi cauk tampi ih sung ta le Dr. L.H.Sakhong ih a cauk “Insearch of Chin Identity” timi sung ih a sim mi pawl an bang aw lo. Mirang pawl ih ngan mi cauk tampi thawn a ngan mi a dang lam tuk tikah L.H Sakhong ih palh mi a si sawn ding timi ka rak sim fiang ding.

2)Background:

Mirang pawl in, India ram lam ihsin 1871-1872 kum ah Chinram nitlaknak lam an lak suak. Cucu (The Lushai Expedition of 1871-72) tiah an ko. Hithu cu Dr.Sakhong cauk sung ah “The First Invasion of Chinram (The Lushai Expedition)” tiah a ngan. Himi 1871-72 hnuah cu Mirang le Chin mi pawl kar lak ah Lt.Steward ih thih hlan tiang buainak ngai pipa a rak um lo. 1888 kum ih Lt.Steward an rak that hnu ihsin Western Chinram ah buainak a rak thleng. Lt. J. F. Steward, Lc McCormilk, Private Owen le India ralkap 11(1 naick (coporal), 10 sepoys (private)) pawl cu Rangamati ihsin, nisuahnak lam ih peng 18 a hlatnak lam ihsin, India thlang lam Bilaicharai timi hmun thawn pehawknak ding hrang, lamzin Survey an tuah lai ah, Lungtian/ Muallampui mi-uk Hau Sata le a ralkap minung 200 – 300 lenglo in thupruk in an buk ah an va sim. (Dr.Sakhong in cu Lungtian miuk tiah a sim. A.S.Reid ih ngam mi The Chin-Lushai Land ah cun Muallampui miuk tin a sim. A si nan, hi khua pa hnih cu nai awk te an si ih, Hau Sata ih ukmi khua pawl an si ko ding). Cui hmun ah Lt.Steward, Mirang ralkap pa 2 (Lc McCormilk, Pvt. Owen) le India sepoy/ralkap pa Theka Ram cu an that. Indian ralkap a dang pawl cu an tlan suak man. An that mi pawl ih lu cu an tan, an phur ih an ruak cu an hlon.

Cui thu cu mirang pawl in an thei ih an thin a heng ngaingai. Mirang pawl in, Hau Sata ih thah mi ruak (Lu nei lo) pawl cu, tiva kiang ah an hmu ih 07 February 1888 ni ah an phum. Lt.Steward ih ruak (lu nei lo) khal cu 25th February 1888 ah an hmu. Lt.Steward thihnak lehrul sal ding in Chinram cu zin 3 in nor an rak tum. Cutiih Chinram hremnak pe ding thu cu cuikum 1888 ah ṭhul sal a rak si, ih Lt.Steward that tu Hau Sata le Za Huat (Thantlang miuk) ih khua pawl lawng vasim ding in, tlunlam bawi pawl in siannak an rak pek. 1888 ṭhal ihsin Mirang pawl in Western Chinram do ding in timtuahnak an nei. Lt.Steward an that hnu le Mirang western Chinram an ra kai hlan ah, Chin pawl in mirang pawl thawn a kom awmi lole kuttang ummi khua pawl khal an va sim. Chinram ramri ah ralkap pawl an tthan ih an Lushai Expeditionary Force ralkap thazang 1100 lai cu Col Tregear in a ho hai. 6th Feb 1889 ni ah Chinram do ding, Hau Sata le ZaHuat do ding in order an suah. Cutin, March 15 ihsin Chinram nitlaknak lam Hau Sata le Za Huat khua pawl do ding ah an rak pok.

Hau Sata cu, Lt.Steward a that hnu rei lo ah a rak thi. Cun, Lt.Steward ih zunphir meithal thawn an phum cih thu khal, Mirang pawl in a khua an feh hlan te ah an rak thei. 1889 March 20 ah Hau Sata ih khua an lak ngah ih Hau Sata ih a ruak cu a thlan ihsin an phorh sal. Lt.Steward ih zunphir meithal cu an lak sal. Hau Sata ih a ruak cu belmang dum a thuh thluh, a thlarau harsatnak tuar seh ti duhnak ah. Hlanlai kan pi le pu pawl rak zumnak ah, leitlun ih kan thih tikah, mithi khua ih feh a rak si ih, cui an fehnak lamzin le mithi khua ih an lut theinak ding ah tiah an thlan sung ah an neih hlawnthil pawl thawn an rak phum ṭheu. Hau Sata ih khua le nitlaknak lam Chinram hrekkhat an rak lak suaknak expedition cu A.S Reid in The Lushai Expedition of 1889 tiah a ko ih, March 1889 ah an theh suak.

Himi Lusei ram ihsin Chinram an rak donak, Lt.Steward hrang ih lehrulnak an tuah laifang ah, Kawlram lam khal in mirang pawl cu Sizang ram lam pan in ral an rak do. Mirang pawl cun, Kawlrawn ih khua pawl Chinmi pawl in an sim, Shwegyophyu kha Tlaisun pawl in humhimnak an pek ruang ah tiah Sizang ram lam ah an rak kai. Sizang le Tlaisun pawl cun mirang an rak do ve. Mirang pawl in Sizangram lak ding in December 1888 in an thok ih March 1889 ah a lak suak. Cutin Chinram nithlaknak hmun tam sawn le Nisuahnak lam ih Sizang le Tedim ram hmuahhmuah cu an rak lak. Nitlaknak lam ah Fort Tregear an rak din, Nisuahnak lam Thuklai khua ah Fort White an rak din. Himi ni suah nak lam ih ral Dec 1888- March 1889 le The Lushai Expedition of 1889 pa hnih kom in “The Chin Lushai- Expedition 1888-89” tiah an ko. Himi ral 1889-90 Expedition cu, Dr. Sakhong in “The Second Invasion of Chinram” tiah a ngan. Asinan Kawlram lam ih doawnak, Sizang le Tlaisun kom in Mirang doawknak thu lawng a ngan. Lushai ram ihsin Hau Sata khua pawl an lak ih, Fort Tregear an rak din thu a ngan lo.

The Chin-Lushai Expedition 1888-89 an theh hnu ah, The Chin-Lushai Expedition 1889-90 cu September 1889 in an rak thok. Himi expedition ahcun, mirang pawl cu zin thum (three-pronged) in Chinram an rak nor. Mirang pawl ih an tha zang pawl tla cu Nitlaknak lam ihsin ralkap thazang 3400, Col. Tregear ih homi Chitagong Column, Gan khua ihsin poksuak mi ralkap thazang 1869, Col Symond ih ho mi Gangaw (Southern) Column le ralkap thazang 1622, Col.Skene ih homi Fort White column an rak si. Southern column cu Kan-Zokhua-Hakha-Falam feh ding an si. Chittagong column cu Lunglei-Thantlang-Hakha-Falam feh ding an rak si. Chittagong Column le Gangaw Column cu Feb 26, 1890 ah Hakha in peng 52 a hlatnak Thau khua ah an rak tong aw. Cui Column pa 2 cu, culai ih Chinram ih thazang a cak biknak Tlaisun/ Fahlam lam an pan ih Ngaizawl ah hmun an khuar. Fort White Column khal cu Thuklai ihsin an rak pok ih, Parte khua ah hmun an rak khuar. Pu Con Bik tla in hi mirang Column pa 3 cu a neh thei lo ding ti a thei ruangah mirang pawl hnen ah 11 March 1890 ah, mirang hnen ah a sung a rak khan.

A sung an rak khan nan, Mirang hnen lawng ah cawhkuan/ siah kumtin pekding in lawng an rak lung kim in an si nak cu an rak kilkhawi. Mirang pawl cu Laimi pawl in an rak do ring ring tho tho. Pu Lai Lauai in 1891 March thla ah Lt. Mr.Macnabb column a rak do, Khai Kham le Thuam Thawng khal in Sizang-Gungal Rebellion 1892-1894 taing an rak thok. Tlaisun pawl khal in, miring do ding tu pawl an bawm, do ding in an forh ruang ah, Mirang in 13 March 1892 ah Tlaisun capital, Fahlam cu a lak ih, Mirang ih a mah thu in a rak uk thok. 1895 tiang lai buai nak a rak um ih Chin Hills Regulation 1896 hnu in a dai.

3) Lt.Steward thih thu ah (Mirang pawl in ziang tin an sim?

A tlun ta cu, Laitlang mirang nih an rak ukdan, a tawi zawng ten ka sim duh mi a si. Himi paragraph hi, Dr.Sakhong ih sim mi a palh pang a si timi ka sim faingnak ding hrang ih a thu pi bik mi paragraph pawl si ruang ah, Lai in ka rak let ding. Mipi ih hmuh sual lonak ding ah, Mirang ca ka lak nak pawl khal karak ret thotho ding.

Lt.Steward thah thu ah ….

a) Tuck le Carey ih nganmi The Chin Hills timi cauk sung ah “Thantlang pawl thawn hmaisabik kan tongawknak cu Hau Sata thu ruang a si. Hau Sata in Thantlang miuk Za Huat ih fanu a rak ṭhi duh. Za Huat cun a fanu hrang ah man sang tuk hlawn thil pawl a rak dil ruang ah Hau Sata cun a rak tlin lo, asinan cui hlawnthil pawl aiah minung lu thawn pek ding in lungkimnak an rak nei. Hi lu pawl ngahnak ding ah, Hau Sata cun mi siim ding a tim tuah ih, vansiatnak ah lamzin thar saknak ding hrang ih, survey a rak tuah tu Lt.Steward le a kilkhawi tu ralkap pawl thawn an tong aw ih, Lt.Steward le a kilkhawi tu tam swn cu an rak that”.

b) A.S Reid ih nganmi The Chin-Lushai Land timi cauk sung ah “Hau Sata in Lt.Steward a thahnak thu hla cu hitin a si. Hau Sata le a nu pi an buai ih, a nu pi cu a pa Za Huat (Thantlang miuk) hnen ah a va tlan hnuah Hau Sata in a va dil sal. Hau Sata in mirang lu pa hnih thawn a tlen sal tul tiah an lung a kim. Ka zum dan ah, hi vek luyaing (savage) pawl ih ruahnak thinlung ah, nang mah ih mi na that ih, na ngah mi lu, cu mi dang hnen ah na va pek a si ahcun, cumi na va pek mi pa ih, sal ah na cang ta. Cutin, Za Huat hnen ih pek ding ah Hausata cun mi va that ding in tim a tuah, Vansiatnak ah Lt.Steward cu Hau Sata thawn an tong aw. Lt.Steward te kiltu an nei mal mi an hmu tik ah, himi cu kan hrang ah caan tha bik a si tiah, ṭhelh lo in an that”.

c) Wim Vervest ih ngan mi The Lost Dictionary timi cauk sung ah “Sa Hlut ih fapa Hau Sat in Lt.Steward cu 1888 kumah a that ruang ah lehrulnak (punitive) ral a thonak bik a si. Hou Sata cu thunei zet Thantlang miuk Za Huat ih tupa a si”.

d) Wimvervest ih a Pu, Major Newland nganmi The Image of War timi sung ah “Thantlang miuk Lal Luai (Lt.Steward that tu pa) cu tlang lak ah a relh lai ih, a sung khat pa Za Huat in, Thantlang hnam pawl, Lal Luai ih um lo sung ah a uk”. Asinan, himi a ngan mi Major Newland a sual mi a si tin, a tu pa Wim Vervest in a cauk The Lost Dictionatary timi sung ah a sim fiang sal. Wim Vervest cun Major Newland ih fapa Sam Newland ih Diary thawn pehpar aw in a sim fiang lai ah “Major Newland in Hau Sata that tu pa cu Lal Luai a si tin a sim ruang ah thuhla a hnok ter. Lt.Steward that tu cu Hau Sata a si tin, Chin pawl le Carey le Tuck in an sim” tiah a sim fiang sal.

e) Sir Robert Reids ih nganmi The History of Frontier Areas Bordering Assam 1942 timi cauk sung ah “Feb 03 1888 niah Lt.J.F Steward (1st Leinster Regiment) cu Rangamati ihsin peng 18 a hlan nak Saichun tlangtlaun ih, survey an tuah lai ah, miuk Hau Sata in Lt.Steward, European ralkap pa 2 le India ralkap pakhat a rak that hai”.

Ziang ruang ah an that timi cu Sir.Robert ih A.S.Reids ih nganmi thawn a lung a kim a bang. Cucu, “Kaladan tiva kap ih luyaing (Hau Sata) le a nupi buainak ruang ah Lt.Steward thihnak a rak thleng”. Sir Robert Cun Hau Sata thih thu thawn pehpar aw in “Hau Sata ih umnak khua cu, kan maih sakhan a si cia mi Lunglei ihsin March 14 (1889) ni ah kan suak ih, Za Huat ih khua cu March 19 ni ah kan thleng. Hau Sata ih khua cu ni 20 ni ah kan thleng. Hau Sata ih thlan cu kan lai ih, a ruak tang ah Lt.Steward ih zunphir kan hmu. Mr.Lyall’s ih sim vekin, Lt.Steward that tu kan leh rul ngah” tiah a ngan.

f) Mirang ralkap a thi mi pawl lakkhawmmi website ah “Lt. John STEWART-Leinster Regt. cu – 1888 kum ah, Rangamatti khua kiang ah, survey a tuah laiah a thi ih a lu cu February 1890 kum ah an hmu sal” tiah a ngan.

g) Suhas Chatterjee ih ngan mi Mizo Chiefs and the Chiefdom timi cauk sung ah “Shendu (mara) miuk cu Mirang lam tang a si ih, Hau Sata le a ho pawl ih cangvaihnak thu hla cu Mirang pawl hnen ah a sim. Hou Sata cun, Mirang pawl lamzin an cek si ahcun, a khua ah an ra ding ih, Mirang kut tang ih um a duh lo ruang ah cui lamzin tuah ding ih Survey tuah tu pawl cu thah a rak tum. Lt.Steward te cu, Shendu miuk Saipuia ih ralrinnak a pek rero nan, ziang hman a rak siar lo. Lamzin ceknak ding hrang ih Survey hnatuan tu pawl cu, 03 Feb 1888 ni ah, Hau Sata le Za Huat homi mi lai 300 lai in an kulh” tiah a ngan.

Cuhnu ah, Lt.Swetward that tu Hau Sata cu a thi. A ruak cu, Lt.Steward ih zunphir thawn an phum cih. Lt.Steward le a bodyguard dang an that mi lu pawl cu Burma ih um Shendu miuk Pakuma hnen ah an kuat. Chin Lu-shai Expeditions 1889-90 ṭumah a thlan cu an lai ih, Lt.Steward ih zunphir meithal cu an suah. How Sata ih ruak cu melmang an man. Hau Sat aa cu mi sual a si ti cu a fiang, a si” tiah a sim.

Note:  Suhas in Chin Lushai 1889-90 ah a ruak an lai a ti. Himi expedition hi Sep 1889 in a thok ih March 1990 ah a cem. Hau Sata khua cu 20 March 1889 niah an thelng ih, a ruak an lai thu a tlun ah kan hmu thei. Cuhleiah, London ih The Graphic Newspaper, May 24 1889 kum ih suah mi Newspaper sung ah Lt.Steward ih ruak an lai lai fang (See Photo-1), zuk suai mi an rak suah zo. Suhas ih sim vek 1889-90 si lo in, 1888-1889 expedition timi sawh ah si a ruak an lai.)

h) Lt.Steward ih lu an phurnak thawn pehpar aw in A.S.Reids cun “An tan mi milai lu pawl cu, nisuahnak lam (further east) ih um mi miuk Paona hnen ah an kuat. A mah cu Lt.Steward that ding ih hotu pa nga lak ah a tel. A dang pawl tla cu How Sata le a fa pa hnih le Za Huat an si” tiah a ngan.

Note: Lt.Steward ih lu cu Thangtlang peng Thangzang khua ah an phur. A lu cu Thangzang khua bungpi ah an tar ih, puai tuah in an rak lawm (sesawm an tuk). Thangtlang peng Thang Zang ih thang lian mi Salai Chan Khar in kan khua thuan thu ah hitin a si tiah i sim.

4) Lt. Steward Thahnak Thu (Dr. L.H Sakhing ih timi)

Dr. Sakhong ih ‘Insearch of Chin Identity pg.98-101’ thutlang “The Third and Final Invasion of Chinram (The Chin-Lushai Expedition)” sungah hi thu hi a tel. Dr. Sakhong cun ziangruangah mirang pawl in Chinram an do ti le mirang pawl sitcawng 3 Chittagong Column, Gangaw Column (Southern Column) le Northern Column  thu pawl a ngan.

Cun, himi The Chin Lushai expedition cu Sep 1889 ah a thok ti thu khal pg.98 ah a sim. Hau Sata thawn pehpar ih pg.99 ah a timi cu, “Chitagong sitcawng cu Pu Za Huat, Thantlang mi uk, le Pu Hau Sata, Lungthian mi-uk, ih hohatnak in Chin pawl in an do. Thangzang ih an doawknak ah Pu Lal Luai, Pu Za Huat ih nau, in Lt. John Steward ih ho ralkap pawl cu an siatsuah ṭheh ih amah Lt. J. Steward tla an that. A lu cu Tao ah an hmu. Chittagong sitcawng ih Capt. Rundall le Gangaw sitcawng Tao khua ih an tong awk lai Feb 26, 1890 ah an hmu sal.” tiah a ngan.

5) Mirang Pawl Simi (No.3) le L.H.Sakhong Simmi (No.4) Thlirnak

Mirang pawl in ngan mi cauk zaten (No.3) ih ka quote mi cauk pawl sung ah Lt.Steward that tu cu How Sata a si ih 03 Feb 1888 ah a that tin an ngan thluh. Cun, Hausata khal, 20th March 1889 hlan ah a thi zo timi a fiang, Sir.Robert ih sim vek in “Za Huat village was reached on 19 March, Howsata on 20th. Howsata grave was examined and underneath his body found Lt.Steward gun proving as Mr.Lyall’s report says we are punishing the right men”. London ih May 4 1889 ni ih suah mi The Graphic newspaper ah Hou Sata ruak an laih lai zuksuaimi an suah. Himi pawl zoh in Lt.Steward cu 03 Feb 1888 ah a thi. How Sata khal March 20th 1889 hlan ah a thi zo a fiang. Cun Lt.Steward ih lu khal cu Burma ah an kuat, Chatterjee ngan vek in “The heads of Stewart and his party were sent to the Shendu chief, Pakuma in Burma”. A lu cu Thantlang peng Thangzang khua ah an va phur. A.S.Reid khal in “The heads of the men killed had been sent for safety to another chief called Paona who lived further east”. Thangzang khua ih thanglian Salai Chan Khar in “kan pi le pu pawl sim mi thuan thu ah ralbawi Steward ih lu cu Bungpi ah an thlai ih lomnak an tuah (sesawm an tuk)” tiah a sim.

Ziangruangah How Sata nih Lt.Steward a that timi a ruang cu, anmah mirang pawl ngan mi khal ah a bang aw lem lo. Cun, Steward that tu ah Za Huat a tel tin ngan tu hi A.S,Reid le Suhas Chatterjee lawng an si, A dang sources ah cu, Mirang pawl in a hmin an sal lo. Za Huat cu a thu le hla in tel ruang ah maw Mirang pawl ih dan an rak tat. A silole, Lt.Steward that tu taktak ah a rak tel ruangah maw dan an rak tat timi cu a fiang ngaingai lo. Cun, Pu Lal Luai cu a tlun in sources pawl ah a hmin a tel lo law law. Asinan, Major Newland ih a cauk the Image of War sung ah cu a telh nan, a sungkhat pa Wim Vervest in a hman lo tiah a sim sal.

The Chin Luashai Expedition 1889-90 ih Chittagong column ah Mirang pawl in doawknak thu an ngan mi a um lo. Dr. Sa Khong ih sim vekin, himi expedition cu Septerber 1889 in a thok ih Chittagong column le Gangaw column cu Thau khua ah Feb 1890 ah an rak tong aw. Asinan “The Chittagong Column was attacked by the Chin, led by Za Huat (Jahuta), a chief of Thlantlang (now a township headquarters in the Chin State, Burma), and Pu Huasata, chief of Lungthian (now in the Mizoram State, India). At the battle of Thangzang, the Chin forces, under the command of Lal Luai (Lalwe), younger brother of the Thlantlang chief Za Huat, annihilated a company under the command of Lt John Steward in a fierce battle.Lt..Steward himself was killed” tin a ngan cu a hman lo mi si. A tlun ah evidences tampi thawn Lt.Steward cu 03 Feb 1888 ah le Hau Sata cu March 1889 hlan an an thi timi ka sim zo. September 1889 ih thok mi expedition ah ziang tin an rak tel thei ding? A cang thei lo mi si. Cun “The Battle of Thangzang” khal mirang pawl nganmi cauk ah a um lo mi a si. Ka sim zo vekin, Lt.Steward cu 03 Feb 1888 ah Rangamatti thawn peng 18 hlatnak ah a rak thi zo. Thangzang khua ah a thi mi si lo.

Asinan, Lt.Steward ih a lu cu Thangzang khua ah an rak hmu. Himi thu hi, Thagnzang khua thuanthu theitu pawl ih simmi le Major Newland ih ngan mi The Image of War timi sung ih a sim mi thawn an kaih awk. Thangzang khua ah Lt.Sweward ih lucu The Chin Expedition 1889-90 lai ah an rak hmu ih, dan tat nak ah, Thangzang khua hrek (partial) an rak ur. Thangzang khua sung ah khal, Lt.Steward le midang pa thum an thi mi hngalpinak (raid trophies) cu ruafung sau pin an rak tar. Himi cu zuk rori ah kan hmu thei. Major Newland ih zuk mi (See Photo 2) ah “Raid trophies at Tunzun, putup in honour of the murder of Lt.Stewart” tiah caption a pek. Cun, Thangzang khua an ur lai khal Major Newland ih a rak zuk (See Photo 3) ih “Burning of Tunzun, where Steward head was found” tiah caption a pek.

Curuang ah Lt.Steward ih lu cu Thangzang khua ah an hmu thu a fiang. Dr.Sakhong ih sim mi vekin Thau khua ah a si lo. Asinan, Carey le Tuck ih ngan mi hi a hnok deuh ih, himi in a sual si ding ka zum. Carey le Tuck in The Chin Hills timi sung ah “All the objects of the reconnaissance’s were peacefully and successfully obtained. On the 26th February (1890) the advance parties of the Burma (Southern) and Chittagong columns met at Tao (Thau – not Tio), 53 miles west of Haka. Captain Rundall, who commanded the Burma party, and Captain Shakespear, the Lushai In-telligence Officer, acting on information received, succeeded in recovering the head of Lieutenant Stewart, together with his gun, aneroid, and field glasses, and the heads and rifles of the Europeans and the sepoy who were killed” tiah a ngan. Himi ih, Thau khua ih an tong awknak ah an hmu si ding tiah, a mah te a zumnak a ngan mi si ding.

6) Thunetnak

Himi ka ngannak hi Dr.Sakhong huatnak ruang ih ka ngan mi a si lo. Personal lam ih htihkhite-nak ding ih duhnak in khal ka ngan mi a si lo. A cauk sung ah a hman lo tin ka ruat mi ka sim sal men mi si. A hman lo ka ti duhnak san cu, Mirang pawl ih ngan mi cauk tampi sung ta, Thangzang khua ih elders pawl sim mi pawl le Dr.Sakhong ih sim mi an dang tuk ruang ah, a mah a sual ka ti nak a si.  Dr.Sakhong thuphan in ca a ngan tin ka tiduhnak si lo timi in rak theithiam sak ding ah ka duh. Minung cu palhnak kan nei ringring. Mirang pawl ih cauk sung hman ah, an palh mi tete a um. E.g. Suhas cauk sung hman ah a palh mi te a um. Hivek a palh mi  tete a um lawng ah, a hman mi a rak suak theinak a si. Dr.Sakhong cu kan ram hrang ah nasa zetin hnaatuan tu, tu khal ah Ceasefire hrang ah siseh, Federal lam hrang ah siseh a tuannak pawl parah ka upat zet.

Mirang in siar na duh le hinah >>>> Click aw

Lt. StewardLt Steward Thahnak Thu

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References pawl cu a tlun ah an cauk hmin le a ngantu pawl thawn ka ngan thluh zo. Background ih information pawl khal anmah sungta pawl an si. Kha mi sungih ka list lo mi cu,

1) A military report in Chin-Lushai Country by E.B.Elly (British Library shelfmark number: X.809/66230)

2) Report on the Chittagong Column, Chin-Lushai Expedition by A.O. Chambers (British Library shelfmark number: IOL.1947.b.414)

Photo 1. (London Newspaper The Graphic in May 4 1889 ni suah ih tel mi zuk a si. Caption ah The Expedition for the Punishment of the Lushai Hill tribes, Northern India – Finding the gun of the late Lt.Steward in the grave of the chief Howsata tin an ngan. This portrait shows a dark skin, long hair Chin man digging the grave and handing the double barrel gun to the British officers. The British officers, soldiers, Gurkha soldiers watch the digging while the hut and houses are burning on the background. The corpse was tied with bamboo locally known as “tem rua” and covered with white clothes and piece of treasure/silverware were also dug out.)

Photo 2) Burning of Tunzun, where Steward head was found.

Photo 3) Raid trophies at Tunzun, putup in honour of the murder of Lt.Stewart

Photo 4) Thephoto is from the Chin Hills. Wimvervest quoted the British Library to idenfity them. The photo was taken by Major Newland and Pu Lal Luai (Right), Pu Hrang Dun (Left) and Newland’s Dog called Gyp !!!

Photo 5) A three-pronged attack from Lunglei, Kalaymyo and Pakokku

Na ruahnak