Ziang Ruang ah Syria Ram A Buai?

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By vcth on October 30, 2013.

1. Thuhmaihruai

Tulai Leitlun Thuthang kan ong veten Syria ram buai thu in a khat. Syria cu Middle East ih ram thupi le hmun thupi a si ruangah, tu lawng siloin, kum thawngthawng in a rak buai ringring. Hlan lai ahcun “Silk Road” timi pursumleilawnnak zin ih Suez Canal an tuah hlan tiang ah, hmunlai (center) hi Syria ram a rak si. Nisuahnak lam ih thil zuar duh khal ah, Nitlaknak lam ih thil zuar duh khal ah Syria ram pal ih feh a rak si. Himi pursumleilawnnak, lennak dawi ah leitlun Uknak hminthang hmuahhmuah in Syria ram ngah ding ah ral an rak do cio. Egypt Empire, Assyria Empire, Persians Empire, Alexandrer the Great, Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Umayyad Empire, Mongol, Ottomman, British, France pawl khal in hi ram hrang ah nunnak tampi liam in an rak cuh dah. Ralpi II (World War 2) a theh hnu khal ah USA le USSR ih cahnak zuam awknak “Cold War” lai khal ah Syria hi a rak thu pi zet. Tuni ah khal anmah Syria ramsung lawng siloin leitlun ram cak hmuahhmuah in an buai pi rero thotho.

Nitlaknak media lam cun Assad dotu pawl an ṭan zet ih, Assad in a mipi pawl amah duh lonak an langter (sandah piah) ruangih a that hai ruangah tin Nitlaknak lam in Assad cu dawi an tum. Asinan Russia, Iran le Hezbollah in cun Syria cozah an din pi. USA, Saudi, Qatar le Nitlaknak ram tam sawn cun “Free Syrian Army” an ṭan. Himi an buainak hi Assad ih a mipi pawl a ti buai men lawng ruangah a si lo. An buainak thei fiang taktak ding ahcun an THUANTHU kan thei fiang a tul.

2. Islam Biaknak le Syria Ramsung um mipi

Tuni Syria ram buainak hi Islam biaknak sungih ṭhenawknak le Syria ramsung um mipi pawl hi zo pawl an si timi thei fiang tengteng a ṭul. Prophet Muhammad in Arab hrin hnam pawl a khawm thluh ih cakzet ah an rak cang. Prophet a thi tikah amah hmun cohlangtu dingah tin a unau (cousin) le makpa (son-in-law) a simi Immam Ali hnen ah a pek tiih a zum tu pawl hi “Shi’a Muslim” an si. Himi a zum lo ih Phophet Muhammad in Abu Bakar (senior companion (Sahabi) and the father-in-law) hnenah hotu sinak a pek ti a zumtu pawl hi “Sunni Muslim” an si. Tuni Syria ram ah 60% Sunni, 12% Alawites (Shia Muslim) cun 28% hi Jews, Kurds, Armenian, Christian le Orthodox pawl an si. Syria ram cu Christian pawl hrang khalah a thianghlim/ thupi zet mi hmun ram a si. Paul khal Damascus ih Christian pawl that ding in a feh laiah Pathian ih khawhnak a ngah. Christian tiih a ko awk hmaisabik pawl khal Syria ram Antioch ih zumtu pawl an si.

1.0 Syria Religion Map

3. Hlan Santuanthu (Ancient History)

Greater Syria

Greater Syria

Tu hlan kum 1,000 leng in Syria ram umtu dan hi ngankhum a rak si thawk zo. “Silk Road” ih center a rak si ruangah an ram a rak lian tuk. Himi liannak duh ah Empire tampi in co duhmi ram a rak si. Greek pawl in “Syria” timi cafang hi an rak thok. Hlan lai ih Greater Syria an rak timi cu tusan ih (Lebanon, Iraq, le Palestian) ram pawl a rak tel . Roman Empire in a rak uk khal ah Syria ram hi center ah hmang in Inn tumtum, thatha a rak sak mi pawl tuni tiang hmuh theih a si lai. Roman Empire Constatitine the Great in Roman ukmi ram hmuahhmuah ih zumnak kha Christian ah a rak thelng. Cutin Syria ram cu kum reipi Christian ram a rak si.

3.1 Umayyad Empire

Prophet Muhammed in Arab hrinhnam pawl a rak kawm thluh thluh ih cutin Islam biaknak cu a Middle East ah rak kharh ter. Kumbazi 7 nak  a rung thleng tikah, Syria ram cu Muslim Uknak pakhat ah a rak cang ih Umayyad Empire in an rak uk. Himi Umayyad hi Sunni Muslim pawl an si ih, Shi’a Muslim pawl tha mal dingin an rak tuah. Prophet Muhammed in hotu sinak a pek tin Shi’a Muslim pawl ih zum mi Imam Ali ih fapa Prophet ih tupa Immam Hussain cu an rak that. Cutin hlan laipi ihsin hi te pahnih hi ralawk an rak si. Tuni rambuainak kan zoh khal a si le hlanlai pi ih Syria ram cahnak neitu le tusan ih mitam sawn a simi Sunni pawl (Free Syrian Army le a dangdang) in B. Assad ih (Alawaites, Shi’a le minorities) pawl do awknak a si.

Umayyad Empire

Umayyad Empire

3.2 Crusade Ralpi le Uknak dang dang pawl

Kumzabi 11 nak a rung thleng tikah Europe ih Christian pawl in hmun thianghlim Jerusalem cu Muslim kut sungin lak sal ding an rak tum. Himi ral in tuni ih Muslim pawl lakih hminthangzet mi Saladin timi a rak suak ter. Saladin in a rak neh hai ih Jerusalem khal Christian kut sung in a rak lak sal. 2005 ih suahmi “Kingdom of Heaven” timi video a zoh pawl cun himi thuanthu nan thei ding. Saladin khal cu Sunni thotho a si ih Syria ah a uknak hram khuar in, Shi’a pawl silhkhuhnak (influence) nei thei lo dingin a rak tuah. Cutin Syria ram cu Sunni pawl ih rak uk ringring mi a rak si. Himi hnu ahcun Mongol pawl in an rak lak. Cun Mongol pawl cu Egypt pawl in an neh ih Egypt kut sungah a rak um. Cu hnu ah Ottomman Empire kut tang ah Ralpi I (World War 1) hlan tiang an rak um. Ottomman kut tang ah Syria ram hi a rak dai zet.

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire

4. Tulai Santhuanthu (Modern History)

6.0 Skyes-Picot Agreement Map

Leitlun Ralpi I nak laiah Ottomman Empire cu Germany lam ṭang in Mirang lam pawl a rak do. Ottomman ral a rak sung tikah a ram neih mi cu Britian le France in an rak co. Britain le France cun a sungih ummi minung pawl zawn ruahnak nei lo in a hrek veve an rak ṭhenawk ih Syria ram cu France in a co. Cun Ottoman Syria cu France in Lebanon le Jordan tin an rak then bet.
France ih uknak an rak hua tukih an rak do hnuaihni nan France in a rak nuai neknek thluh thei. France in Sunni pawl hi ramduhthang (nationalist, extremist) pawl an rak si tikah an rem lo. Cutin Syria ram ih mitamsawn (majority) Sunni pawl daiter tu ding ah Syria ih mimal (minority) a simi Alawites le Shi’a pawl kha ralkap ah an tuanter ih cutin Sunni pawl an rak dai ter thei. Shi’a pawl hrangah cu hnaṭuan le an nei hlei ah, an thazang a cak vivo ih tuni ahcun thuneihnak khal an co theinak karbak a rak si.

Alawites (Shi’a zumtu pawl), Jews, Christian le Orthodox pawl hi mimal (minority) an rak si tikah Sunni Muslim pawl ih namnuai kumkhua in an rak tuar. Tuni Sunni pawl khal in tu hlan kum 700 ih dun le daan pawl ah “Alwites pawl cu Muslim an si lo” tin kum tampi hremnak tong mi an rak si. Syria sak lam ram tlang par ah an um nak khal an mah le an mah humhim thei nak ding ah a rak si. Curuangah Sunni Muslim pawl an rak hua ve.

7.0 French Syria State Map

4.1 Ralpi Hnu Santhuanthu le Hafez al-Assad

Ralpi II ṭhen hnuah Syria ram cu France in 1946 ah Zalenak a rak pek. Syria ram cu Empire tam pi nih a rak uk vivo tikah miphun le biaknak tampi an cok awk. Curuangah Zalennak an ngah hnu khal ah an ram cu buainak in a khat. 1946 le 1956 karlak ah Hotu Lu pawl (Cabinet) voi 20 a thleng aw ih Danhrampi voi 4 an thleng. 1948 ah Israel thawn an doawk lai khal an an sung. Cutin cozah a cak lo tikah 1949 ihsin Ralkap in uknak an rak lak. Ralkap Uknak sung tho tho khal ah 1949 ihsin 1954 sung ah voi thum ralbawi dang dang in Uknak an cuh. 1947 ah “The Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party” timi Army officers pawl in an rak din. Tufang Syria ramuk tu Assad ih a pa Hafez al-Assad khal himi party ah nasa zetin a rak tel. Himi party cu Secular/ Left Leaning lam an siih nunau pawl khal vote pek thei, tlawng an kai ter, jews pawl khal tlawng an kai ter ih a hleice in mimal a simi (Alawites, Jews le Christian) pawl Sunni Muslim pawl ih zawmtaih/ hremnak ih sin humhimnak an pek. Sunni pawl cu mi sosang an siih Syria ram cu Islam Daan vekin uk a duhtu pawl an si.

1967 ih Israel thawn ral an do khal ah an sung. Cumi lai ah Hafez al-Assad hi Defense Minister a rak si. Cutin 1972 ah a mah in uknak a rak cuh ih Syria cu ‘Secular Socialist State’ tiah a rak cang ter. Secular state a si nan rampi ih zumnak bik (state religion) cu Islam a si. Uknak a lak hnu rei lo te ah Israel a va do cih. Himi Yom-Kippur ral ah Israel in a neh nan a thock lam ah Syria in hlawhtlingnak a rak nei ruang ah mipi ih duh nak a tong. Israel le USA ih influence thei lo ding ih cakzet in a ding tu Arab micakzet pa tiah rak kawh a si. Cun Lebanon civil war khal ah a rak tel ih Lebanon ram hrek khat cu kum 30 Syria in a rak uk. Ralkap cak zet a nei hlei ah amah dotu pawl nuainem theitu ding Palik thazang cakzet a nei fawn. Ba’ath Party ih policy vekin secular lam in a rak uk ih mimal pawl a rak humhim. Cun Syria ram a ṭunghmun mi ram si ding in a tuah thei tikah Sunni pawl khal in an rak duh ve. Asinan Extreme a si mi Sunni hrekkhat pawlin an rak duh lo.

5. Muslim Bortherhood

Sunni extreme pawl cun Muslim brotherhood timi an rak din ih tusan in tui san ih Al-Qaida vekin cozah zung, khaw sung tivek ah bomb an phuah, cozah hnatuan pawl an rak that. 1982 ah Syria saklam um Hama khua cu Muslim brotherhood in an rak lak, cozah hnatuan dinhmun sang hmuahhmuah an rak that thluh ih Islam ramkulh tiah an rak than. Cumi cu Assad ih nasa zetin a rak dosal ih mipi khal tampi an rak thi. Himi Assad in a do salt um ah minung 10,000 ihsin 25,000 kar lak an rak thi.

Himi thawn pehpar aw in mi tampi tla kaih le thah an si. Hama khua cu a rak lak thei sal ih Muslim Brotherhood pawl cu kum 30 lai an rak cang thei nawn lo. 2010 hnu Arab Spring a hung cang hnu lawng in an tho thei sal. Cui laiih an rak nuai tu pawl lehrulnak caan tha an ngah thlang. Tuni ih Syria rambuai nak hi khat lam khat lam ih zaangfahnak nei lo in an that awk. Assad lam in khal mitam pi an that thu, FSA lam in khal mitampi an that thu Human Right Watch in a phuang lang thu kan thei cio ko ding

6. Hafez al-Assad in Bashar al-Assad

2000 ah H Assad a thi ih a fapa London ih tlawng kai mi, tufang Syria President Bashar Assad hnenah thuneihnak a rak pek. B Assad a kai thok pek te ah mi tampi in ramkhel, pursum tungdinnak a tuah ding tiah an rak thlir. London ih tlawng kai mi a si ruangah Nitlaknak ram pawl thawn pehtlaihawknak a nei thei tin an rak thlir. Asinan ramkhel lam tungdinnak (political reform) a rak tuah lo, pursum lam tungdinnak (economical reform) a tuah nan Khawpi minung (Urban) pawl le an inn sung sang thawn a nai tu lawngin an hlawkpi ruangah mipi tampi an thinheng. Cun Syria ram ah ti har, mangtam a tlung tikah khawte lam ih mino pawl khawsung ah hnatuan hawl in an vai. Asinan khawsung ah le hnatuan um lo tikah harsatnak tumpi an rak nei in cozah par ah thin hengnak tumpi a rak suak. Cutin mipi in an lungawi lonak an rak lang ter, 2000 kum ah.

7. Arab Springs

Himi kum hnu cu thuthang a zohtu pawl nih cu ziang a cang ti kan thei ko ding ka zum. Cunah tampi ka ngan duh lo ding. 2000 kum ihsun mipi ih sandahpiah thoknak in Egypt, Lybia, Tunisia le Yemen ram pawl ah cozah thlengnak a rak cang. Himi in Syria ram khal ah a rak peh ve ih cozah duhlonak an rak lang ter ve. Assad khal in Ralkap hmang in daih ter a tum. Cutin buainak a rak thok ih July 2011 ah Syrian National Council le Free Syrian Army (FSA) cu Turkey ram ah an rak din thok. Tuni ah FSA tang ah pawlkom 100 lenglo an um ih FSA in control ngaingai a nei lo. Anmah ten zalenak nei in an cangvai. FSA cu Sunni a tam sawn an si, cun ram dang ih Sunni extremist pawl khal in an rak kom. Assad kuttang ih Sunni ralbawi le ralkap pawl khal cu FSA an va pehzom thluh. Assad lamah cu a tangmi ralkap pawl le Alawites (Shi’a) pawl an siih tuni tiang an do aw rero ko. Tuhlan kum 100 lai in a rak cang vekin Sunni pawl le Shi’a pawl an doawk rero. Tuni an doawknak hi Assad ih sandahpiah tu pawl a ṭhekdarh le namnuai ruangah  a si bik lo, tuhlan ih kumkhua thleidan awknak, huatawknak  le zumnak banglonak, thuneihnak duhnak ruangah buai rero mi an si.

Tuni Syria cu zalennak an ngah thok ihsin Russia in bawmnak pek ringring mi an si. Middle East ah Russia ih a influence thei mi ram tiah Syria bik lawng a tang. Curuangah tuni tiang fekzet in Syria lam ah a dingnak a si. Cun Shia’a ram a si mi Iran le Shi’a militia group a si mi Hezbollah khal in Syria an tan pi. FSA cu Sunni ram a si mi Qatar le Saudi in an ṭanpi. Cun USA le Nitlaknak ram pawl khal in an ṭanpi. USA le Nitlaknak ram pawl sawh cu Russia le Iran ih Middle East ih thuneihnak cemter duh ruangah FSA tha a pek.

Arab Spring Assad

Thunetnak

Tuni ih an buainak hi khua hlanpi ihsin a rak thok cia zo. Cuhlei ah Britain le France in phunhman le zumnak bangle mi pawl an rak ral aw ter sin sin. Sunni pawl ih kumkhua rak uk ringring mi ram cu Ralpi II cem hnu-ah mimal a simi Shi’a in thuneihnak an lak tikah, Sunni pawl in thuneihnak kan lak thei sal lawngah thil umdaan dik le Santhuanthu ih feh dan a si tiah an hmu. Shi’a pawl khal in thi maw nung in an do ve ṭul. Ziang ah tile, mitam Sunni an kai sal si le hlanlai vekin hremnak le namnuainak pawl an tong sal ding ruangah a si. Tuni ah mimal Alawites, Jews, Orthodox le Christian pawl in cu Assad lam ah an ṭang. Ba’ath Party a kai thok ihsin himi pawl Sunni pawl ih nuai thei lo nak ding in humhimnak a pek ruangah a si. Sunni pawl khal in kan hnak in mimal pawl in in uk, mitam sawn kan si tiah thuneihnak an duh ve.

Tuni Syria ih buainak hi, khuahlan in biaknak thenawknak le Britain le France in mi ram an va uk ciamconak ih a pehtlaih (lole) a rahsuah mi buainak a si. Assad ih mipi sandahpiah mi a thekdarh men ruang lawngah a si lo. USA le Nitlaknak ram pawl khal cu ramkhel an lek (Politic play) ve ih a nehneh an hngak. Syria ram sung ah Shi’a maw Sunni maw ttan mi ce an nei lo, an tumtah bik mi cu Russia, Western ram pawl ih mit hmuh ah terrorist an si mi Hezbollah le Iran ih Middle East tlun ih an influence mal ternak ding ah Assad an donak a si. FSA an kai a si ahcun Western ram pawl ih Midddle East ah influence an nei thei deuh ding ti zumnak a um. Ziang khal sisehla, tuni ah Nisuahnak vs Nitlaknak, Majority Vs Minority, Sunni Vs Shi’a, Secular Vs Religion, Democracy Vs Authoritian tin an do aw rero lai. Ziangtikah a cem dingih, zo in a neh ding ticu sim theih a si hrih lo.

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